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MARCH 15, 1950 

Prepared and released by the 




Committee on Un-American Activities 
U. S. House of Representatives 

John S. Wood, Georgia, Chairman 

Francis E. Walter, Pennsylvania 
Burr P. Harrison, Virginia 
John McSweeney, Ohio 
Morgan M. Moulder, Missouri 
Richard M. Nixon, California 
Francis Case, South Dakota 
Harold H. Velde, Illinois 
Bernard W. Kearney, New York 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

Louis J. Russell, Senior Investigator 

John W. Carrington, Clerk of Committee 

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research 



Espionage 1 

Gen. Izyador Modelski 1 

Nicholas Dozenberg 2 

Jet propulsion and aircraft 2 

Mary Jane and Philip O. Keeney 3 

Paul Crouch 4 

Atomic espionage 5 

Nelson- Weinberg case 5 

Hiskey- Adams case 6 

Jordan hearing 7 

Spotlight on spies 7 

Labor 8- 

United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America (CIO).- 8- 

Communist Party, U. S. A., and the international movement 10 

Communist activity in the District of Columbia 11 

Minority groups 11 

George K. Hunton 11 

Thomas W. Young 12 

Lester B. Granger 12 

Dr. Charles S. Johnson 13 

C. B. Clark 13 

Jack "Jackie'" Roosevelt Robinson 13 

Manning Johnson 13 

Rabbi Benjamin Schultz 14 

Communist-front organizations 14 

Scientific and Cultural Conference for World Peace 14 

American Slav Congress 14 

Congress of American Women 15 

Southern Conference for Human Welfare 15 

In retrospect 15 

Twelve Comnmnist leaders 15 

Harry Bridges 16 

Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee 16 

Gerhart Eisler 17 

Commimist-dominated unions 17 

The Hiss conviction 17 

Files of the committee 18 

Distribution of publications 21 

Recommendations 23 

Appendix I. Excerpts from Report of Commission on Subversive Activities, 

Maryland, January 1949 25 

Appendix II. Testimony of Yelverton Cowherd 46 

Appendix III 

Eastern Division, Czechoslovak National Council of America, corre- 
spondence, etc 52 

Obzor Publishing Co., correspondence, etc 68 

Polish-American Labor Council, correspondence 73 

John Gillin, correspondence, etc 73 

Review of the Scientific and Cultural Conference for World Peace, 

correction 75. 



The following report for the year 1949 is submitted to the House of 
Representatives in pursuance of House Resolution 5, adopted, by the 
House of Representatives, Seventy-ninth Congi^ess, first session, on 
January 3, 1945, and Public Law 601 (sec. 121, subsec. Q (2) ) adopted 
August 2, 1946, setting up the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
and authorizing such reports of the committee's activities and recom- 

Hearings, investigations, and reports of the Committee on Un- 
American Activities for the past year dealt in the main with such 
aspects of connnunism as espionage ; the Communist Party, U. S. A. ; 
the Connnunist Information Bureau (Cominform) ; Communist activ- 
ity in the District of Columbia ; infiltration of labor unions ; propa- 
ganda among minority groups ; and Communist-front organizations. 


The committee believes that espionage is one of the most deadly 
weapons in the hands of the American Communists at the present time. 
Investigations during previous years indicated that the Communists 
resorted extensively to this activity, regardless of the relations between 
the Soviet Union and the United States. 

The major part of the committee's attention during 1949, therefore, 
was devoted to unearthing additional evidence of Communist activity 
in this field. The following is a summary of some of the testimony 
heard by the committee in connection with its espionage investigations. 


Evidence of current Communist espionage was presented to the 
committee by Gen. Izyaclor Modelski, former military attache of the 
Polish Embassy, who broke with the Communists late in 1948. Armed 
with a mass of official Polish Government documents. General Modelski 
appeared before the committee on March 31 and April 1, 1949, and 
described the operations of a spy ring working from the Polish Em- 
bassy in Washington, D. C.. witli the aid of the Russian Embassy. 

He testified that the Polish esi)ionage ring was Nation-wide in scope 
and was directed by one Col. Gustaw Alef-Bolkowiak, who was offi- 
cially attached to the Embassy as deputy military attache. Docu- 
ments introduced by General Modelski included Polish Government 
instructions for the operation of the espionage apparatus in the Em- 
bassy, and detailed requests for every type of scientific, political, and 
industrial information about the United States. The Polish Govern- 
ment also asked for such specific military information as the strength 
of the various units of the armed forces and new technical inventions 
in that field. 
L, 1 


General Modelski also identified an Embassy deputy, Ignace 
Zlotowski, as head of a special atomic espionage unit within the Polish 
Embassy. He said that similar spy rings operated in the embassies 
and legations of other Balkan nations under the domination of Russia. 


Conclusive evidence that a Communist espionage apparatus existed 
in the United States as early as 1928 was presented to the committee 
last year through the statement of Nicholas Dozenberg, self-confessed 
former agent of Soviet Military Intelligence in this country. 

Although Dozenberg was at one time convicted and imprisoned on 
charges of passport fraud in connection with his Connnunist activi- 
ties, his statement, wdiicli was submitted at a committee hearing on 
November 8, 1949, was his first public revelation of the operations of 
a major espionage ring in w^hich he had participated. 

Dozenberg revealed that he, as a Communist, was recruited into 
Soviet intelligence work in late 1927 or early 1928 by the then head of 
Soviet Military Intelligence in the United States, one Alfred Tilton, 
alias Joseph Paquett, 

Dozenberg described how Tilton and a photographer-assistant by 
the name of Lydia Stahl photographed documents in the photographic 
studios of one Joseph Turin in New York City. Dozenberg recalled 
that Tilton once spent an entire night photostating plans of the British 
warship Royal Oak^ which plans he had intercepted as the result of 
his espionage activity. Dozenberg said that he himself, on orders 
from Moscow, helped a Soviet intelligence agent, Jacob Kirchenstein, 
establish an American business and credit background and necessary 
contacts in 1930 or 1931. 

Kirchenstein operated under the alias Frank Kleges, the ]iame of a 
deceased American war veteran, whose papers were obtained for him 
by Alfred Tilton, according to Dozenberg. Dozenberg also admitted 
espionage assignments in Rumania, China, and the Philippines. 

Among others in the espionage ring identified by Dozenberg were 
Mark Zilbert, who, in 1929, succeeded Tilton as head of Soviet Military 
Intelligence in this country ; Boris Devyatkin, alias Dick Murzin, in 
charge of Soviet intelligence for the New York area under Zilbert; 
xA^lbert Feierabend ; Richard Bassow ; Robert Zelms ; and a Dr. Philip 
Rosenbleitt who is presently reported to be in Paris, France. 


Attempts of a Soviet espionage agent, Andrei V. Sclievchenko. to 
obtain secret information regarding aeronautical developments at the 
Bell Aircraft Corp. and Westinghouse Electric Co. during World War 
II were revealed through the testimony on June (>. 1919, of three 
witnesses who had been contacted by Schevchenko. They were Joseph 
John Franey, rubber repairman for the Hooker Electro-Chemical Co., 
Niagara Falls, N, Y. ; his wife, Leona Vivian Franey, librarian for 
Bell Aircraft at Niagara Falls; and Loren G. Haas, air and power 
research engineer formerly employed at Bell Aircraft. All of these 
witnesses notified the FBI when they were contacted by Schevchenko 
and continued contacts with him under FBI instructions. 


Mrs. Fraiiey testified that Schevchenko, posino; as a purchasing 
agent for the Soviet Government, tried to obtain from her copies of 
data on jet propelled planes, swept-back airplane wings, and similar 
confidential matter. 

Her husband described how he also was approached for information 
by Schevchenko, accompanied by two other Soviet aides, Vladimir 
Mazurin, and Nicolai Ostrofsky. The Franeys said the Soviet agents 
tried to tempt them with offers of money and, for Mrs. Franey, furs 
and jewelry from Russia. 

In corroborating the Franeys' testimony, Loren G. Haas said Schev- 
chenko tried to obtain from him information regarding a device for 
the modification of a turbo-supercharger which would increase the 
speed of an aircraft 50 miles per hour. 


Committee hearings held on May 24 and 25 and June 9, 1949, exposed 
the associations of Mr. and Mrs. Philip O. Keeney, former United 
States Government employees, with persons previously identified with 
Communist espionage rings in the United States. The evidence 
showed also that Mrs. Keeney actually served as a courier for the Com- 
munist Party. Both had subsequently tried to obtain passports to 
foreign countries, but without success. In one of Mr. Keeney 's at- 
tempts to leave the country it was established that he had at- 
tempted to leave without a valid passport. 

Mrs. Keeney personally admitted to the committee her associations 
with Gerhart Eisler, the ranking Communist International agent in 
the United States until he escaped the country following court convic- 
tions for passport fraud and contempt of Congress. She also admitted 
associations with Mr. and Mrs. Nathan Gregory Silvermaster and 
William Ludwig Ullmann, who have been identified by former Soviet 
espionage agents as collaborators in a spy apparatus. Mrs. Keeney 
denied actual membership in the Communist Party, however. 

The committee took cognizance of an FBI report submitted in the 
case of the Unifed States of Am,enca v. Judith Coplon., which disclosed 
that: (a) Mrs. Keeney delivered a manila envelope to one Jacob Bern- 
stein immediately upon her return from France on March 9, 1946; 
and that (b) the afore-mentioned Bernstein shortly thereafter trans- 
ferred the envelope to Alex Trachtenberg, a leading official of the 
Communist Party in the United States. 

In questioning Mr. Keeney, the committee developed that on De- 
cember 9, 1948, within 3 months after the State Department denied 
him a passport to leave this country, Mr. Keeney attempted to sail 
without the necessary papers. United States customs officials, how- 
ever, refused to clear the ship on which Mr. Keeney had purchased a 
ticket, and. as a result, Mr. Keeney did not sail. It is interesting to 
note that the ship involved was the Batory^ the same Polish steamer 
on which Gerhart Eisler escaped from American justice, and that the 
lawyer who encouraged him in this unsuccessful attempt to leave the 
country was Mrs. Carol King, Gerhart Eisler's attorney. 

Mr. Keeney refused to answer questions asked by the committee 
regarding membership in the Communist Party. He was employed 
by the Library of Congress from 1940 to 1943, where he handled classi- 


fied material ; by the Foreign Economic Administration from 1943 to 

1945, where he was Chief of the Document Security Section ; and by 
the War Department from 1945 to 1947. 

He was released from his duties at Fort Mason, Calif., on June 7, 
1947, for reasons not made available to the committee because the com- 
mittee is unable to obtain information from the executive branch of 
the Government pertaining to loj'alty records of employees of the 
executive branch. 

Mrs. Keeney worked for the Board of Economic Warfare, later 
known as the Foreign Economic Administration, beginning in 1942. 
She worked for the Allied Commission on Reparations in 1945 and 

1946. After the FEA was blanketed into the State Department she 
was employed in the Interim Research and Policy Division of the 
Office of Internal Security. In 1948 she became employed in the Docu- 
ment Control Section of the United Nations secretariat. Mrs. Keeney 
refused to divulge the names of persons tln-ough whom she obtained 
this latter employment on the ground that she was instructed by the 
Director of the Bureau of Personnel of the United Nations not to 
answer questions relating to operations within the United Nations. 


A comprehensive picture of Communist underground activity was 
offered in the testimony of Paul Crouch on May 6, 1949. A member of 
the Communist Party from 1925 to 1942, Mr. Crouch held such respon- 
sible party positions as member of the national executive committee 
of the Young Communist League, head of the antimilitarist depart- 
ment of the Communist Party, representative of the Young Commu- 
nist League in Moscow, member of the antimilitarist commission of 
the Young Communist International, and Communist district organ- 
izer in the South. 

The witness testified that Nicholas Dozenberg, Soviet espionage 
agent previously described in this report, introduced him in 1929 to 
the head of the Soviet secret police in the United States, who informed 
Crouch that Young Communist League members should do everything 
possible to get jobs in the State Department and other branches of the 
Federal Government. Crouch was also asked to see what he could do 
about obtaining blank passport books. 

Crouch further testified that a year earlier he had been the only 
American representative present at a Moscow meeting where detailed 
instructions for Communist infiltration of the armed forces of the 
United States and other countries were worked out. Crouch said the 
Communists were told to concentrate on strategic military objectives, 
and that Panama and Hawaii were recommended for special 

He identified Max Bedacht, Walter Trumbull, and Emmanuel 
Levine as leaders in the American Communist Party's efforts to carry 
out the armed forces infiltration program. Crouch said he remembered 
that the Communists succeeded in getting cells aboard the U. S. S. 
Oklahoma and into Fort Snelling, Minn. 

In the early 1940's Crouch was active in an attempt to infiltrate the 
radiation laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, Calif. 
He identified as his Communist associates in this effort Kenneth May, 
Rudy Lambert, and Marcel Scherer. 



Communist espioiicage in the vital field of atomic energy continued 
to get special attention in committee investigations during the year 


By pursuing investigations begun back in 1947, the committee was 
able to offer the American public a comprehensive picture of the opera- 
tions of a Communist cell in the wartime atomic project at the radia- 
tion laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Calif. 

Witness James Sterling Murray, former officer in charge of security 
and intelligence in San Francisco for the Manhattan Engineering 
District, which was the agency responsible for the development of the 
atomic bomb, testified that a' highly confidential informant told his 
office that a scientist at the radiation laboratories had disclosed certain 
secret information about the Manhattan engineering project to a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party in San Francisco. From information 
supplied on the background of the particular scientist, one Joseph W. 
Weinberg was identified as the scientist who had disclosed the infor- 
mation referred to. 

Murray testified from knowledge received in personal surveillance 
of Joseph W. Weinberg and Steve Nelson. He was corroborated by 
statements from other security officers of the Manhattan District. It 
was disclosed from this evidence that a meeting was held at the home 
of Joseph Weinberg, in Berkeley, Calif., in August 1943, which was 
attended by Joseph W. Weinberg; Bernadette Doyle, secretary to Steve 
Nelson during the period he was the Communist Party organizer for 
Alameda County, Calif.; Steve Nelson; Giovanni Rossi Lomanitz; 
Irving David Fox; David Joseph Bohm; and Ken Max Manfred, 
formerly known as Max Bernard Friedman. 

Confronted with Nelson at committee hearings, Weinberg denied 
that he knew or had ever been acquainted with Steve Nelson. He also 
denied knowing Bernadette Doyle. The committee thereupon for- 
mally requested the Department of Justice to institute perjury pro- 
ceedings against Joseph Weinberg, relating to the meeting of August 
23, 1943, and his acquaintanceship with Steve Nelson and Bernadette 

Supplementary evidence regarding Weinberg's Commmiist associ- 
ations was supplied in the testimony of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Crouch, who 
stated they had attended Communist meetings with this scientist. 

Other members of the Communist cell at the Radiation Laboratory 
were identified as Giovanni Rossi Lomanitz, David Joseph Bohm, Max 
Bernard Friedman, and Irving David Fox. "When questioned about 
Communist activity, each refused to answer on the ground of self- 

A detailed history of Steve Nelson's activities as a Communist Party 
functionary and espionage agent was made public for the first time in 
the course of these hearings. The fact that he had resorted to passport 
fraud was also revealed. 



A native of Yugoslavia, Steve Nelson entered the United States on 
June 12, 1920, posing as Joseph Fleischinger. He joined the Com- 
munist Party in the early 1920's and in 1928 was granted United States 

Nelson received special training in the Lenin School in Moscow in 
1931, and in 1933 acted as an operative for the Communist Interna- 
tional in Shanghai, China. In 1936 and 1937, he served as a lieutenant 
colonel in the Communist-recruited International Brigade in Spain. 
Although active as a Communist Party organizer in California and 
Pennsylvania and as a member of the Communist Party National 
Committee, his most important assignment was atomic espionage. 

While Nelson was active in California, he renewed his acquaintance 
with a woman whom he had met in Europe and whose first husband 
had been killed while fighting with the Spanish Loyalists during the 
Spanish Civil War. This woman, during the interim, had married a 
leading atomic scientist. After meeting both the woman and her 
scientist husband several times, Nelson reported to his superiors that 
they were not in sympathy with the Communist Party and therefore 
would not be of any assistance in atomic espionage. Nelson then pro- 
ceeded to recruit a Communist cell at the Radiation Laboratory of the 
University of California which was engaged in research Avork relating 
to the development of the atomic bomb. 

During the course of the committee's investigation of Steve Nelson, 
it was developed that Nelson had at times been in contact with one 
Ralph Bowman, alias Rudy Baker, alias Heinz Zimmerman, who in the 
early 1940's was a high official in the Communist International "ap- 
paratus" operating in the United States. 


The committee had developed the case of Clarence Francis Hiskey, 
Arthur Alexandrovich Adams, and John Hitchcock Chapin in 1948. 
This dealt with an atomic espionage group operating through the 
Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago. (See pp. 19 
and 20 of the 1948 annual report.) In 1949, it pursued this inquiry 
still further, and produced additional evidence regarding the Hiskey- 
Adams case. 

James Sterling Murray, security officer for the Manhattan Engi- 
neering District, who has been previously mentioned herein, testified 
on August 14, 1949, that after Clarence Hiskey was removed from his 
post as an atomic scientist he was inducted into the United States Army 
and stationed near Mineral Wells in Alaska. Thereafter, Murray said, 
a surveillance by Agent Charles Clark of the Intelligence Section of 
the Manhattan Engineering District at Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 
disclosed that while on his way to his Alaskan post Hiskey was in pos- 
session of written matter classified by Gen. Leslie R. Groves as top 
secret. This material was removed from Hiskey's possession without 
his knowledge by Agent Clark. It is interesting to note that prior to 
the removal of the secret material in Hiskey's possession arrangements 
had been made for him to contact a second Soviet agent in Alaska. 
However, this contact was never made after the secret material was 
removed from Hiskey's possession. Another witness testified that he 
had been introduced to Adams, notorious Soviet espionage operative, 
by Hiskey. 


On May 24. 1949, Hiskey was given an opportunity to defend him- 
self, with the assistance of counsel, against accusations made before 
the committee. He refused to affirm or deny the charges on the ground 
of self-incrimination. 

On the same day, the committee heard Paul Crouch, who identihed 
Hiskey as a member of the Communist Party in Knoxville, Tenn. He 
festified that Hiskev collaborated with :Marcel S.cherer, the "national 
head of Communist work among chemists, scientists"' and similar pro- 
fessionals, who operated in California in 1941. 


On December 5, 1949, the committee received the testimony of 
George Racev Jordan regarding alleged shipments of Government 
documents and uranium to the Soviet Union by way of a United States 
Army airport at Great Falls, Mont., during the war. Jordan stated 
that 'it had been his assignment to expedite the shipments. In an 
effort to determine the validity of these charges, the committee sum- 
moned other witnesses, including Gen. Leslie R. Groves, former head of 
the Manhattan Engineering District. Since the investigation is con- 
tinuing into the present year, 1950, the committee will withhold a 
report on this phase of its investigations at the present time. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities was gratified, during 
the year, to receive a high compliment regarding its espionage investi- 
gations. In an appearance before the committee on December 7, 1949, 
Gen. Leslie E. Groves made the following statement : 

I know of no ease where the committee, with respect to Russian espionage, has 
made known to me anything that was not correct. 

( Xoit::. — Additional hearings have been held to further develop this 
case and are being printed in a separate volume.) 


By the issuance of the pamphlet Spotlight on Spies, a picture of how 
the Soviet spy system operates in the United States was offered to the 
Members of Congress and the American public. 

In the simple popular form of 100 questions and answers, the pam- 
phlet describes the structure and methods of operation of espionage 
rings, the material they are after, and how successful they have been 
in some instances. The recruitment and training of secret agents, the 
functions of couriers, and the use of microfilm are also described. 

The information is based on voluminous testimony before the com- 
mittee regarding Communist espionage. Much of this testimony is 
from confessed former espionage agents. 

Nine thousand copies of this report were published, receiving wide 
reprint in the public press. The supply was so quickly exhausted that 
the brochure was reprinted — the second time in combination with 
other similar pamphlets in one larger volume entitled "100 Things 
You Should Know About Communism." 



A primary Communist objective is the penetration and control of 
the labor movement in the United States. The international Commu- 
nist "apparatus" has supported local Communists in this objective. 
The Committee on Un-American Activities, therefore, has felt obli- 
gated to expose the machinations of the Communists in the labor field. 


In view of the present concern regarding our national-defense pro- 
gram, the committee considered it of paramount importance to pursue 
Its investigations into the activities of the Communist clique at the 
head of this union. 

Testimony heard by the committee regarding the United Electrical, 
Eadio, and Machine Workers of America (CIO) resulted in partial 
exposure of the Communist control which has bee-n exercised over the 
national union organization, District Comicil G, and local GOl. 

On August 9, 19-19, the connnittee heard the testimony of Charles 
Edward Copeland, business agent of local 601 of the United Electrical, 
Eadio, and Machine Workers in the industrial metropolis of Pitts- 
burgh. Having been a member of the Communist Party from 1943 
to 1945, he identified the following oflicials of this local as having at- 
tended meetings with him : Frank Nestler, editor of the local union 
paper ; Thomas J. Fitzpatrick, chief steward ; Frank Panzino, assist- 
ant chief steward; and Robert Whisner, subdivision steward of the 
local union. He estimated that from 200 to 300 members supported 
the pro-Communist wing of the union. 

Demonstrating the manner in which Communists utilize unions for 
recruiting purposes, William Henry Peeler, another member of the 
local, described how Dorothy Faraday, district secretary of the UE, 
had solicited him for membership in the Communist Party. He said 
similar approaches were made by Nathan Alberts of the union staff, 
and that Alberts had proudly referred to Tom Fitzpatrick and Frank 
Panzino as fellow Communists. Mr. Peeler described the fluctuations 
in the policy of the pro-Communist bloc in the union in accordance 
with the party line, and he also described its support of certain Com- 
munist-front organizations. 

Blair Seese, another member of local 601, testified that he had been 
asked to join the Communist Party by Marshall Docherty, an officer 
of the local, working in collusion with Joe Godfrey, an organizer for 
the party. Fitzpatrick had privately admitted party membership 
to Seese. Under the regime of Communist officials, the union office had 
been used for the circulation of petitions in behalf of the 12 Commu- 
nist leaders on trial in New York and for the solicitation of subscrip- 
tions to the Daily Worker. Union mailing lists were employed for the 
circulation of their Communist literature. 

Stanley Glass, recording secretary of local 601, testified that he had 
been solicited to join the Communist Party by Thomas Fitzpatrick, 
who described to him the glories of Soviet Russia. Mr. Glass held that 
district council 6 of the UE was under complete Communist domi- 


On August 10, 1949, Thomas J. Fitzpatrick, Frank Panzino, and 
Robert C. Wliisner were given a full opportunity by the committee to 
answer the charges whicli had been made against them. They all 
refused to affirm or deny Communist Party membership on constitu- 
tional grounds. Mr. Whisner a dmitted being delegated by the Friends 
of the Soviet Union to visit that country in 1934 without, however, 
indicating on his passport application that he intended to go to Russia. 
Wlien he returned from his trip, he was a featured speaker for the New 
York district, Friends of the Soviet Union, on December 12, 1934, 
together with Pat Toohey, a leading Commmiist Party official. He 
then wrote for the magazine, Soviet Russia Today, in the January 1935 
issue, a letter captioned "U. S. S. R. Points Way for American Work- 
ers." Thomas Quinn, a field organizer for UE, admitted chairmanship 
of the Western Pennsylvania Civil Rights Congress, which was cited 
as subversive by Attorney General Tom C. Clark. He refused, how- 
ever, to affirm or deny Communist Party membership on constitutional 

Joseph Zack Kornfeder, a former member of the central executive 
committee of the Communist Party, U. S. A., in charge of trade-union 
activities, testified on August 11, 1949, and identified as members of 
the Communist Party the following officials of the United Electrical, 
Radio, and Machine Workers of America: James J. Matles, UE 
national organizational director, and James Lustig, a New York dis- 
trict official. A voluminous dossier containing Communist and Com- 
munist-front associations of Julius Emspak, UE national secretary- 
treasurer, James Lustig, and Matles, as well as the affiliations of 
approximately 100 other officials of this union, was incorporated into 
the record of these hearings. 

On December 6, 1949, Mr. Oscar Smith, Deputy Director of Organi- 
zation and Personnel for the Atomic Energy Commission, testified 
that it was AEC policy to consider the question of security in regard 
to officials of national unions having bargaining contracts in atomic- 
energy installations. He said the AEC could not afford to have work 
interrupted at such important installations by union officials who 
worked not for the best interests of the union members but as agents 
of a foreign power. It was as a result of such a policy, Smith stated, 
that the AEC instructed General Electric not to recognize the United 
Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers Union at the new Baiolls 
Atomic Power Laboratory in Schenectady, N. Y. 

Col. Ernest A. Barlow, Chief of the Security and Training Corps, 
Intelligence Division, Headquarters, Department of the Army, also 
appeared before the committee on December 6. He testified that 
whenever a company has a defense contract with the Army, Nav^^, 
or Air Force, the Intelligence Division of the Army investigates all 
key personnel of the company and every employee of the company 
who might handle, or have access to, classified material. Colonel 
Barlow stated, however, that the Army has no authority, when inves- 
tigating for security clearance, to include union officials who may 
exercise control over the defense workers through their union. 
_ It appeared from this testimony that the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion recognizes the risk involved regarding national security through 
failure to subject officers of certain national labor unions having bar- 
gaining contracts to the same security requirements as those members 


normally dealing with classified material, and that the Atomic Energy 
Commission construes the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 to apply to the 
officers of such a union. The Security Section of the Department of 
the Army, however, contends that it has no authority, under the law 
applicable to it, to subject such officials to any type of security stand- 
ards, except in instances where an official, in performing his duty, is 
required to know or to see classified material. If it is important to 
apply such security requirements where atomic secrets are involved, 
it would seem equally important to apply security requirements where 
secret Army, Navy, and Air Force contracts are involved. 

At its eleventh constitutional convention in November lO-tO, the 
Congress of Industrial Organizations voted to expel the United Elec- 
trical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America, and to establish a new 
union in the same field. 



On August 9, 1949, Joseph Zack Kornfeder, former member of the 
central executive committee of the Communist Party, U. S. A., who 
had also served on the official staff of the Communist International 
and a student of the Lenin School in Moscow, outlined for the com- 
mittee the nature of Joseph Stalin's international Communist "appa- 

Mr. Kornfeder described how Stalin's battery of secretaries keep 
him abreast of developments regarding Communist Parties through- 
out the world, and how Moscow has financial control of these parties. 
He named the various Soviet colleges for training subversive agents 
from all parts of the world, including the United States, and he 
named individual American Communists leaders trained in such 

The work of the various Communist International departments, 
including those dealing with agitation-propaganda, organization, 
labor, underground activities, youth, women, agriculture, information, 
and discipline, was outlined. Kornfeder described the functions of 
Moscow secretariats in charge of Communist regional affairs, such as 
Far Eastern, Central European, Anglo-American, and Latin- Ameri- 
can branches. He identified a number of representatives sent from 
Moscow to direct the affairs of the American Communist Party, and he 
analyzed Stalin's methods based upon his ( Kornfeder 's) experience 
within the Comintern "apparatus." 

On May 6, 1949, Paul Crouch, who had served as an organizer for 
the Communist Party in North and South Carolina, Utah, Alabama, 
Tennessee, and California, described the operations of the American 
■Communist Party in these areas, including units in the Tennessee 
Valley Authority, one at Fisk University, and another at the Univer- 
sity of California. 

Crouch also outlined the activities of the Communists in Miami, 
Fla., with particular reference to local 500 of the Transport Workers 
Union and the Pan American Air Lines and the Progressive Party of 
Florida. Crouch called Miami "the ideal place for Communists to 
direct operations in Latin America," because it is the hub of all Pan 
American air lines. He said the Conmiunists had a strategic advantage 


there because Phil Scheffsky, whom he identified as a Communist 
Party member, holds the presidency of TWU local 500, which has 
jurisdiction over all maintenance and flight service employees of Pan 
American in Miami, San Juan, Puerto Rico, and Balboa, Canal Zone. 



Hearings in June and July 1949 dealt with the operations of a 
Connnunist group within the Nation's Capital. While this group does 
not include Government employees, it was considered worthy of special 
attention by the committee in view of the fact that Communists 
working outside the Government have been known in the past to aid 
subversive agents within the Government. 

The connnittee also inquired into the activities of the Washington 
Cooperative Bookshop, which is one of the most important Com- 
munist fronts in Washington, D. C, and serves as an outlet for 
Connnunist propaganda, and a contact or meeting place. This organi- 
zation, since the original writing of this report, has ceased to function. 


The Connnunist Party, U. S. A,, has consistently sought to create 
the impression that it is genuinely interested in furthering the welfare 
of our Negro population. The party and its spokesmen claim wide 
support among this group. Speaking in behalf of the Communists, 
Paul Robeson boasted in Paris on April 20, 1949, that American 
Negroes would not defend the United States in the event of a conflict 
with the Soviet Union. To permit this false impression to stand un- 
challenged would have been unfair to the millions of loyal Negro 
Americans. The committee, therefore, arranged a series of hearings 
to which were invited outstanding members of our Negro community. 
These hearings were arranged largely by Alvin W. Stokes, a Negro 
investigator employed for a number of years by the Committee on 
Un-American Activities. 

As the first witness in these hearings, Mr. Stokes said that, based 
upon interviews with hundreds of Negro leaders throughout the 
country, there are not more than 1,400 Negro members of the Com- 
munist Party, constituting in fact about one-tenth of 1 percent of the 
Negro population. It was his opinion that even among this group 
many would desert the Communists in support of the United States in 
the event of a national emergency. 


On July 13, 1949, the committee heard the testimony of George K. 
Hunton. executive director of the Catholic Interracial Council and 
editor of its publication, the Interracial Review. Mr. Hunton charged 
that the Communists sought at all times to increase antagonism between 
whites and Negroes. In the famous Scottsboro case, for example, Mr. 
Hunton said he became convinced that the Communists "did not want 
the boys freed. They wanted them kept in jail * * * to be held up 
as martyrs." He declared that to attain this goal the Communists 
resorted to '"inflannnatory" tactics of "goading the South" and "rabble 


rousing." As soon as some tentative agreement would be reached 
with the State authorities, he said, "a group of Communists would 
come down and picket the courthouse and negotiations would be called 


He mentioned the fact that the Communists organized a picket 

line around a Madison Square Garden meeting arranged by the 
National Council for a Permanent FEPC, because it was not held 
under their auspices. 

He also described obstructive Communist picketing while negotia- 
tions were going on for the hiring of Negro players by major-league 
baseball clubs. 


The next witness was Thomas W. Young, president and publisher 
of the Guide Publishing Co., Inc., publishers of the Journal and Guide, 
a weekly newspaper circulated principally in Virginia and North 

Mr. Young held that by and large — 

the machinery which we in this country have embraced for the realization of 
our declared way of life is, nevertheless, accomplishing, however slowly, tlie 
most cherished aspirations of the Negro group. 

He felt that Paul Robeson — 

is now so far out of touch with the Negro's thinking and his everyday emotions 
that he can no longer siieak authoritatively about or for the race. His distant 
travels and his latter-day preoccupations with the affairs of the Soviets have 
broken the bond he once held with the Negro mind. 


On July 14, 1949, the committee heard Lester B. Granger, executive 
director of the National Urban League, a social-service agency with 
branches in 29 States and the District of Coliunbia. He, too, empha- 
sized the meagerness of Communist influence among Negroes. In 
New York's Harlem, for example, which is overwhelmingly Negro, 
he pointed out that the Communist-supported candidate for President, 
Henry A. Wallace, had received only 14 percent of the total vote cast. 
He said a similar situation was reflected in Negro districts in Chicago. 

The Communist Party — 

he declared — 

seeks to establish among Negroes and the rest of the world the illusion of an 
influence they actually never hope to attain. * * * gudj an impression, 
skillfully established, would * * * obviously strengthen the hand of Moscow 
in power politics the world over. 

Mr. Granger described the methods employed by Communists in 
penetrating Negro organizations as follows : 

Their methods are to go into an organization ; if there is a fee, to pay the fee ; 
if activity is the measure of membership, to be very active ; but by one means 
or other to get a large number of members to go in and to gravitate, generally 
not to the presidency or highest post, but to some minor post that is a good look- 
out post, and then at various points to exert open or covert control that will keep 
the movement going along Communist Party policy, or at least not opposed to it. 



Mr. Granger was followed by Dr. Charles S. Johnson, president of 
Fisk University and author of a number of works on racial relations, 
education, and the South. Dr. Johnson held that — 

rhe Negroes are rooted in this country, in the life of this country, and they seek 
their fortunes and futures here; and they feel * * * ^^j^jj^ ^^ jg infinitely 
better to rest their case with the internal correction of their grievances than to 
fly to fates unknown, untested. 


Mr. C. B. Clark, of Pittsburgh, Pa., the next witness, is a descendant 
of a fighter in the Continental Army in tlie days of the American 
Revolution, and himself a disabled veteran. It was his opinion that — 

a vast majority of Negroes have no respect for Russia, no love for communism, 
nor belief in any foreign ideology. 

JACK c' Jackie") roose\'elt robinson 

On July 18, Idld, the committee heard Jack Roosevelt Robinson, 
famous second baseman for the Brooklyn Dodgers, recently voted the 
most valuable ballplayer of the year. His historic statement was 
reprinted with acclaim by the press of the entire country. In sharp 
contrast to Paul Robeson, who arrogated to himself the right to speak 
in behalf of 15,000,000 Xegroes in the United States, Mr. Robinson 
declared : 

I can't speak for any 15,000,000 people any more than any other one person 
can, but I know that I've got too much invested for my wife and child and 
myself in the future of this country, and I and other Americans of many races 
and faiths have too much invested in our country's welfare, for any of us to 
throw it away because of a siren song sung in bass. I am a religious man. 
Therefore, I cherish America where I am free to worship as I please, a privilege 
which some countries do not give. And I suspect that 999 out of almost any 
thousand colored Americans you meet will tell you the same thing. 


Manning Johnson, who appeared on July 14, 1949, was formerly a 
member of the national committee of the Communist Party and a 
member of its Negro commission. He received special training in one 
of the party's conspiratorial schools. He is now an AFL organizer. 

Johnson identified Paul Robeson as a secret member of the Com- 
munist Party, who has ambitions to '^be the Black Stalin among 
Negroes.'- According to Johnson, Robeson's contacts were restricted 
to the higher echelons of the party. 

A six-page record of Paul Robeson's Communist affiliations was 
included in the appendix to these hearings. 

Mr. Jolmson said he turned against the ])arty for four reasons: (1) 
Because the party was antireligious; (2) because it stood for the es- 
tablishment of a separate Negro republic by armed revolt; (3) because 
of its callousness and insincerity in the Scottsboro case; (4) because 
of its support of the Stalin-Hitler pact. 
^ ]\Ir. Johnson introduced into the record a comprehensive list of 
Communist-front organizations utilized by the party for activity 
among Negroes. 

62106 — 50 3 ' 



Rabbi Benjamin Scliultz, national executive director of the Ameri- 
can Jewish League Against Communism, appeared before the com- 
mittee on July 13, 1949. He presented 27 exhibits from the Communist 
press to show how it seeks to incite the Jewish people against the 
United States. Some illustrative headlines were: "American air- 
planes against Jewish immigrants"; "Nuremberg in Washington"; 
"They arrest only Negroes and Jews." Rabbi Schultz also presented 
examples of anti-Semitic literature of the Communists, including the 
Moscow Pravda for March 5, 1949, and two cartoons from the New 
York Morning Freiheit. He placed into the record a list of the 
I)rincipal Communist-front organizations operating among the Jews. 


From its inception the committee has devoted considerable atten- 
tion to the exposure of Communist-front organizations. As a result, 
a number of these organizations were rendered ineffectual and in some 
cases were dissolved. 


With considerable fanfare, the Scientific and Cultural Conference 
for World Peace staged its meetings at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in 
New York City on March 25, 26, and 27, 1949. In a report subsequently 
issued, the committee showed that this was part of a so-called "world 
peace movement" under Communist auspices. Instead of promoting 
peace, however, it was intended to provide a forum against the Mar- 
shall plan, the North Atlantic Pact and other aspects of American 
foreign policy, and to provide a forum to support Soviet foreign 
policy, to incite civil disobedience and to discredit American art and 
culture in favor of the Soviet productions. The committee presented 
the Communist affiliations of the sponsors of the conference in detail. 

Published on the eve of the Communist-inspired World Peace Con- 
gress in Paris on April 20-23, 1949, the report was utilized for infor- 
mational purposes by the State Department and was roundly de- 
nounced by Moscow. It was widely circulated in colleges throughout 
the United States. 


On June 26, 1949, the committee published a comprehensive report 
on the American Slav Congress, a Communist front affiliated with 
the All-Slav Congress in Moscow. This organization spreads Soviet 
propaganda directed at the 10,000,000 Slavic-Americans in this 

The report traced the history of the organization, its activities, the 
Communist affiliations of its leaders, the various supporting Commu- 
nist organizations and publications, and the collaboration of various 
Communist embassies. The report showed that the objectives of this 
organization were primarily military, being directed toward the sub- 
version of millions of Slavic-Americans emploj'ed in our basic indus- 
tries. Included in the report were examples of subversive, anti- 
American and pro-Soviet propaganda in affiliated foreign-language 


Among those whose Communist records were included in the report 
was George Pirinsky, also known as Nicholas I. Zaikoff, and George 
Necoloff. Pirinsky ^is now under $5,000 bail after being arrested for 
deportation on charges of advocating the overthrow of the United 
States Government by force and violence. 


On October 23, 1949, the committee published a report on the Con- 
gress of American Women, affiliate of the Women's International 
Democratic Federation. The Congress was identified by the com- 
mittee as — 

a specialized arm of Soviet political warfare in the current "peace" campaign to 
disarm and demobilize the United States and democratic nations generally in 
order to render them helpless in the face of the Communist drive for world 

The Soviet control of the Women's International Democratic Fed- 
eration was traced from its inception in 1915 to the present date. 
Communist or Connnunist-f ront affiliations of the outstanding leaders 
of the Congress of American Women were listed. These leaders 
included Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Margaret Undjus Krumbein, Muriel 
Draper, Susan B. Anthony II, Gene Weltiish, Clara Bodian, Claudia 
Jones, and others. 

The type of pressure employed by this organization and its close 
adherence to the line of the Communist Party were described in some 
detail. Copies of the report Avere distributed among the principal 
women's organizations in this country. 


The committee on June 12, 1947, published a report exposing the 
Communist nature of the Southern Conference for Human Welfare. 
These findings were supplemented on jNIay 6, 1949, through the testi- 
mony of Paul Crouch. Crouch, as former southern organizer for the 
Communist Party and an active participant in the Southern Confer- 
ence, related how this front organization had been subsidized and 
directed by the Communists from its first meeting. This organization 
is no longer in existence. 



The committee would like to remind the Congress that its work is 
part of an 11-year continuity of effort that began with the establish- 
ment of a Special Committee on Un-American Activities in August 
1938. The committee would also like to recall that at no time in those 
11 years has it ever wavered from a relentless pursuit and exposure 
of the Communist fifth column. In many instances in the past, how- 
ever, the positions taken b}^ the committee on certain questions were 
not immediately supported. The committee had to wait upon the 
course of history for some of its findings to be legally substantiated. 
We would herewith list some of these instances as applied to 1949. 


In its first annual report, dated January 3, 1939, the Special Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities aiuilvzed the nature of the Com- 


munist movement on the basis of its investigations and found tliat 
the Communist Party — 

seeks ultimately the overthrciw of the American form of govemmpnt * * * 
and * * * rests upon hrutal violence despite its present dishonest professions 
of belief in the process of democracy. 

Year after year the committee reiterated this warning to the Ameri- 
can public, and on May 11, 1948, it published the most comprehensive 
study of this aspect of the Communist movement ever made by any 
Federal agency. Tliis study, heitvily documented, was published under 
the title, "Report on the Communist Party of the United States as an 
Advocate of Overthrow of Government by Force and Violence." 

On Jidy 20, 1048, 12 leaders of the Connnunist Party of the United 
States were indicted by a Federal grand jury in Xew York on charges 
of conspiring to "teach and advocate the overthrow or destruction of 
tlie Government of the United States by force and violence." Eleven 
of them were convicted on those charges in Federal court on October 
14, 1949. 


In its annual report of January 3, 1939. the Special Committee on 
Un-American Activities urged that deportation proceedings be "vigor- 
ously and promptly" prosecuted against Harry Bridges. It declared 
that Bridges — 

was a Communist alien, that he belonged to an organization which preaches the 
overthrow of the United States (Tovernment by force and violence; that he him- 
self advocated the overthrow of the Governmi'ut by force and violence; and that 
he had likewise advocated sabotage. 

Harry Bridges was successful in obtaining American citizenship in 
1945. But on May 25, 1949, he was indicted by a Federal grand jury 
on charges of conspiracy and perjury in connection with his obtaining 
citizenship. His trial is still in progress. 


The Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, headed by Dr. Edward 
K. Barsky, w^as cited as a Communist-front organization by the Special 
Committee on Un-American Activities on March 29, 1944. On Decem- 
ber 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948, Attorney General Tom Clark 
cited the same organization as subversive and Communist. The organ- 
ization complained against this citation to the United States District 
Court in the District of Columbia which dismissed the plea. On 
August 11, 1949, the United States Court of Appeals for the District 
of Columbia upheld this decision. 

For refusing to produce books and records subpenaed by the com- 
mittee in 1946, Dr. Barsky and 17 other leaders of the Joint Anti- 
Fascist Refugee Committee were cited for contempt of Congress. 
Each one was convicted in Federal court, and only two convictions 
were reversed in appellate court. Convictions w^ere reversed by the 
United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia in the 
case of Miss Helen R. Bryan, executive secretary, and Mrs. Ernestina 
G. Fleischmann, executive committee member, on the ground that 
a quorum of the committee was not present at all times during the 
committee hearings. The Government has petitioned the Supreme 
Court for a rehearing. 



Tlie committee in 1947 exposed Gerhart Eisler as the No. 1 leader 
of the Communist International in the United States and, as such, 
the on-the-spot boss of the Connnunist Party in this country. As an 
outgrowth of committee hearings, Eisler was convicted in court in 
1948 on charges of passport fraud and conteuipt of Congress. While 
on bail, pending appeal, Eisler succeeded in escaping the country 
aboard the Polish steamshij), the Batory^ in May 1949. He was 
immediately awarded a prominent post in the Communist govern- 
ment of eastern (Terniany. This further corroborates the committee's 
early Avarning that Eisler's pose as a harmless refugee was mere 
cover for an assignment as a top Communist International agent. 


While this report was in the process of preparation, the trial of 
Alger Hiss, formerly a highly placed Government official, for commit- 
ting perjury before a Federal grand jury in 1948 was brought to a 
conclusion. On January 21, 1950, Alger Hiss was convicted on two 
separate and distinct counts of perjury. One of these counts involved 
a statement made before the Federal grand jury by Alger Hiss that he 
had not seen David Whittaker Chambers, a self-confessed Soviet 
espionage agent, after the year 1937. The other count involved Hiss' 
denial before the same grand jury that he had ever furnished any 
State Department documents to David Whittaker Chambers. 

The name of xVlger Hiss was first brought to the attention of the 
American public by the Committee on Un-American Activities. This 
case was reopened by the committee in 1948, almost 10 years after the 
name of Alger Hiss had l^een furnished to United States Government 
officials by Chambers as being a member of a Communist cell which 
had as its purpose the infiltration of the Government. 

After an extensive investigation had been conducted by the com- 
mittee and the Federal Bureau of Investigation during the year 1948, 
the Department of Justice presented the Hiss matter to the Federal 
grand jury in New York City, ultimately leading to the conviction of 
Alger Hiss for perjury. 


In its report of IMarch 29, 1944, the Special Committee on Un-Amer- 
ican Activities cited the following unions in the Congress of Industrial 
Organizations as having "Communist leadership * * * strongly 
entrenched" : 

American Coinmunicatious Association. 

International Federation of Architects, Engineers, Chemists, and Technicians 
(since merged into the United Office and Professional Workers of America). 
International Fur and Leather Workers Union. 
International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union. 
International Union of Fishermen and Allied Workers of America. 
International Union of IMine, Mill, and Smelter Workers. 
Marine Cooks and Stewards Association of the Pacific Coast. 
State, County, and jNIunicipal Workers of America. 
United Federal Workers of America. 

(Latter two since merged into the United Puldic Workers of America.) 


United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing and Allied Workers of America (now- 
known as tlie Food, Tobacco, Agricultural, and Allied Workers) . 
United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of America. 
United Farm Equipment and Metal Workers of America. 
United Furniture Workers of America. 
United Oflfice and Professional Workers of America. 

At a convention of the CIO in November 1949, two of the above 
unions, the United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of Amer- 
ica, and the United Farm Equipment and Metal Workers of America, 
were expelled from the CIO on charges of being Communist-con- 
trolled. The remaining unions cited by the committee are under 
investigation by the national CIO, which has charged them with 
following the Communist Party line. They are facing possible expul- 
sion from the CIO. 

The Special Committee on Un-American Activities, in the same 
report of March 29, 1944, also presented the Communist affiliations 
of the following members of the CIO executive board : 

Harry Bridges, president, International Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's 

Joseph Selly, president, American Communications Association. 
Donald Henderson, president. Food, Tobacco, Agricultural, and Allied Workers 

of America. 
Abram Flaxer, president. United Public Workers of America. 
Joseph F. Jurich, president, International Union of Fishermen and Allied 

Workers of America. 

These men are also now under charges by the CIO executive board 
that they have followed the Communist Party line. 


During the year 1949, more than 300,000 pieces of material have 
been added to the voluminous files of the committee. Such additions 
have ranged from official documents, photostats, periodicals, and 
pamphlets issued by subversive organizations, circular letters and 
directives of the Communist Party, to crudely lettered handbills an- 
nouncing meetings and programs of subversive groups. Each piece 
of material has been carefully analyzed, classified, and indexed. 

The files of the committee compose one of the most comprehensive 
records in the United States concerning individuals active in subver- 
sive groups, the programs and aims of un-American organizations, 
and their propaganda methods. This vast reference collection con- 
tains information and documentary evidence unearthed by the com- 
mittee in its investigations and studies of subversive groups during 
the past 11 years, records compiled by other investigative agencies, 
data from the files of law-enforcement agencies in various States, and 
evidence submitted by some 1,100 witnesses who have testified before 
the committee in public and executive hearings. 

The committee has painstakingly accumulated and carefully pre- 
served more than a million documents and records covering un-Ameri- 
can activities in this country during the past quarter of a century. In 
volume, the collection has grown from 2 file cabinets in 1938 to more 
than 200 today. Constantly expanding, it is made up largely of irre- 
placeable documents and records. It has been consulted by more than 
20,000 Government agents and officials. 


The collection has served as a basis for much of the committee's 
investigative work. As source material, it has been invaluable in the 
exposure of foreign agents, Communist infiltration, espionage, and 
the nature of subversive movements. It has served as a means of in- 
forming the American people of the menace to national security which 
lies in the efforts of subversive individuals and groups. 

During the year 1949, some 75,000 cards were added to the consoli- 
dated card records of the committee, which now contain 470,000 card 
references to activities and affiliations of individuals. These cards 
serve as an index to source material contained in periodicals, hearings, 
reports, pamphlets, and miscellaneous exhibit material in file. 

In 1949, the committee heard 1,749 pages of testimony presented by 
the 60 witnesses who testified in public hearings, and the 34 who testi- 
fied in executive hearings. Staff members have compiled indexes to 
the public testimony and the four reports issued by the committee 
during the period which contain references to 4,G57 individuals and 
3,171 organizations. 

A total of 52,878 references to individuals and 11,764 references to 
organizations appear in indexes to public hearings. held by the com- 
mittee during the past 11 years and the 64 reports which have been 
issued. These indexes and the consolidated card record file facilitate 
investigative work by members of the staff and authorized personnel 
from other agencies. Reports compiled by staff investigators paral- 
leling the work of the committee have been indexed. These contain 
thousands of references to prewar and wartime subversive activities 
of Nazi, Fascist, and Japanese groups, and information concerning 
Communist activities in the United States. References to 15,825 or- 
ganizations appear in these reports. Documentary evidence accumu- 
lated by staff investigators has been useful to many Federal agencies. 

In the course of its investigations into aims and organization of the 
Communist Party in the United States, the committee has made avail- 
able a large, completely indexed, and readily accessible reference col- 
lection of lists of signers of Connnunist Party election petitions, which 
is consulted daily by investigators from various Government agencies 
as well as staff members. These lists, obtained from original petitions 
or photostatic copies of original petitions, contain 363,119 signatures 
for various years in 20 States. 

Of the 363,119 signatures, some 335.660 have been indexed and 
printed by the committee. The committee has published printed lists 
of signers of election petitions of the Communist Party for 1940 in the 
following States : Arizona, California, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, 
Kansas, Kentucky, INIaryland, Michigan, Xew Hampshire, New Jersey, 
New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, Vermont, West 
Virginia, and Wisconsin. 

The following Communist Party election petitions have been 
indexed by the committee: California. 1932, 1934, 1936, and 1938; 
1942 petitions in Colorado and New York; 1946 petitions in Colorado, 
Connecticut, Michigan, and Pennsvlvania ; New York Citv, 1936, 
1939. 1940, and 1945; Philadelphia,"^1941 and 1946. Lists of signers 
which have not been published by the committee have been indexed 
and filed in the consolidated card records file. 

Throughout the year, individual files have been maintained on 
some 3,500 leaders of the Communist Party and its various front or- 
ganizations, and individuals active in Fascist movements. 


New material lias been added td the huge accumulation of informa- 
tion concernino; thousands of oroanizations in existence in the United 
States. Such additions have involved constant research by staff 
members to ascertain the aims and purposes of new organizations and 
a constant check of old organizations which appear in new guises. 
In many instances throughout the year, source material on file has 
served to expose deceptively labeled Communist-front groups seeking 
to gain control of civic and youth organizations. 

In investigations concerning the diffusion of subversive and un- 
American propaganda in the United States, the committee has t^c- 
quired a highly specialized collection of periodicals and pamphlets 
which serve as a valuable source of information in the study of motives 
and policies of subversive groups. Much of the collection, which 
dates from 1923, is irreplaceai)le. It contains copies of pul)lications 
issued by Fascist, Nazi, and Japanese groups, and hundreds of pub- 
lications issued by the Communist Party and its front organizations. 

Each month, about 1,000 issues of the major Communist publica- 
tions and other periodicals and newspapers have been indexed and 
added to the files, which now contain various issues of more than 650 
publications. In the collection are issues of more than 90 periodicals 
published by the Communist Party or its front organizations. 

More than 300 pamphlets and books written by leaders of subvei-sive 
groups or issued by subversive organizations were cataloged and 
added to the 5,000 in file. Translations of publications recently issued 
by the Communist Party in many countries have been added along 
with early publications of the Communist Party of the ITnited 
States. Included in the large collection are numerous handbooks 
outlining propaganda techniques and methods to be used by Com- 
munist groups posing as champions of minorities and friends of youth. 
This collection has served to expose the cleverly camouflaged recruit- 
ing techniques of the Communist Party and its myriad front organi- 
zations, and the dissemination of totalitarian propaganda masked by 
democratic labels. 

The committee has acquired numerous additions to its large refer- 
ence collection of hearings held by other agencies investigating sub- 
version and reports issued by such groups. 

Hundreds of dossiers have been compiled from information in file 
for use of connnittee members and staff employees in connection with 
reports and investigations during the year. Information has been 
furnished to Members of Congress, other congressional committees, 
and numerous agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

In 1949, staff members compiled reports on the subversive affiliations 
of 2,473 individuals and 597 reports on the nature of various organ- 
izations for the use of Members of Congress. These compilations in- 
cluded all information found in the public files, records, and publica- 
tions of the committee concerning the individuals and organizations. 

In Presidential Executive Order 9835, dated March 21, 1947, the 
files of the committee were designated as one of the pertinent sources 
of. information to be checked in determining the loyalty of Federal 
employees and applicants for Federal employment. In this connec- 
tion, a number of liaison agents have been regularly assigned to the 
files section of the committee throughout the year, where, on the aver- 
age, each agent has checked for information concerning 200 or more 


Tiidividuals daily. Many other agents have made periodic visits in 
connection ^yith the loyalty program and security checks. 

From January 1 through December 31, 1949, liaison agents from 
Government agencies made 3,956 visits to the files section. During' 
these visits, they consulted the consolidated cards, records, indexes, and 
other i-eference sources for information concerning more than half a 
million individuals. 

During the year, staff members have consolidated records and re- 
organized a large volume of material to make information on file more 
readily accessible to accredited agents, who make their own checks of 
<}onimittee publications and the consolidated card-recoixi file. In 
the course of such checks, however, agents often wish to study source 

The conunittee has been able to supply hundreds of exhibits unavail- 
able elsewhere for use of investigative agents in connection with the 
lo3'alty program. Staff members furnish such exhibits, periodicals, 
and other reference material requested, answer inquiries, and are often 
requested to supply information concerning organizations. 

The files of the committee were consulted by representatives of va- 
rious investigative units of the following agencies during the year: 

Riu-efiu of the Census. 
Central Intelligence Agency. 
Civil Aeronautics Board. 
Department of Agriculture. 
Department of the Air Force. 
Department of the Army. 
Department of Commerce. 
Department of Justice. 
Department of Labor. 
Department of the Navy. 
Department of State. 
Department of the Treasury. 
Economic Cooperation Administration. 
Federal Bureau of Investigation. 
Federal Conununications Commission. 
Federal Power Commission. 
Metropolitan Police Department. 
National Labor Ilelations Board. 
Securities and Exchange Commission. 
United States Civil Service Commission. 
United States Coast Guard. 
United States Secret Service. 

Material pertinent to investigations made by Government agencies 
during the year has been loaned to these groups for brief periods for 
photostating. The committee has also furnished such agencies with 
a large number of photostatic copies of exhibits in file. 


The j;pmmittee has long believed that a broad program of education 
is invaluable in the fight against comnmnism. The committee feels 
that if the American citizens who are inclined to be influenced by com- 
munism were cognizant of its principles, aims, and methods, they 
would reject this ideology so foreign to the concepts of our democratic 

As part of tliis program, close to two million copies of commit- 
tee publications were distributed during 1949 by the committee staff 
and such other agencies as the Government Printing Office. 

62106 — 50 4 


Receiving the largest distribution was a series of five question-and- 
answer pamphlets issued originally in 1948 and dealing with "100' 
Things You Should Know About Communism in the U. S. A. * * * 
and Religion * * * and Education * * * and Labor * * * 
and Government." Demands for this series, which exceeded the com- 
bined requests for all other committee publications issued since 1938,. 
were not satisfied by the distribution of 000,000 copies in 1948. A reso- 
lution passed early in 1949 authorized a reprint of 250,000 additional 
copies of each pamphlet in the series. For reasons of economy, they 
were bound as one volume, including the pamphlet. Spotlight on Spies^ 
referred to earlier in this report. Half of the 250,000 additional 
copies were allotted to Members of the House and the remaining half 
were distributed by the committee staff, with only a small part of the 
demand being met. 

In addition to the publication. Spotlight on Spies, the committee 
released the following other new publications in 1949 : 

Documentary Testimony of Gen. Izyatlor Modelski, March 31 and April 1, 1949. 
Soviet Espionage Activities in Connection Witli Jet Propulsion and Aircraft, 

June 6, 1949. 
Hearings Regarding Steve Nelson, June 8, 1949. 
Hearings Regarding Toma Babin, May 27 and July 6, 1949. 
Testimony of Paul Crouch, May 6, 1949. 
Testimony of Philip O. Keeney and Mary Jane Keeney and Statement Regarding 

Their Background, May 24 and 25, and June 9, 1949. 
Hearings Regarding Communist Infiltration of Radiation Laboratory and Atomic 

Bomb Project at the Universitv of California, Berkeley, Calif., vol. 1, April 

22, 26, May 25, June 10 and 14, 1949. 
Hearings Regarding Clarence Hiskey Including Testimony of Paul Crouch, May 

24, 1949. 
Hearings Regarding Communist Infiltration of Minority Groups — Part 1, July 13, 

14, and 18, 1949. 
Hearings Regarding Communist Infiltration of Minority Groups — Part 2, July 14, 

Hearings Regarding Communist Infiltration of Labor Unions — Part 1 (IIBR- 

MWA) August 9, 10, and 11, 1949. 
Hearings Regarding Communism in the District of Columbia — Part 1, June 28, 

29, July 6, 12, and 28, 1949. 
Review of the Scientific and Cultural Conference for World Peace. 
Report on the American Slav Congress. 

Report on Atomic Espionage (Nelson-Weinberg and Hiskey-Adams cases). 
Report on the Congress of American "Women. 
Statement of J. Edgar Hoover (reprint of earlier testimony). 

The committee received a total of 111,681 copies of these new publi- 
cations listed above and the committee to date has filled requests for 
approximately 52,000 copies. In addition, approximately 25,000 
copies of material released in previous years has been distributed since 
January 3, 1949. 

When a new publication is released by the committee a copy of it is 
inailed to the Members of both Houses. This office answers daily 
many requests from Members of Congress for various other informa- 
tion as well as for committee publications. 

The committee has also complied with publication requests from 
foreign countries, including New Zealand, Turkey, the Philippines, 
Cuba, Brazil, Hawaii, Canada, Mexico, Germany, France, the Domini- 
can Republic, the Virgin Islands, England, the Fiji Islands, British 
West Africa, and Japan. 

Numerous copies of committee publications are sold annually by 
the Government Printing Office. The following is a break-down of 
those sold last year : 


Committee on Un-American Activities piiNications sold by the Oovernment 

Printing Office in 19.^9 

100 Things You Should Know About Communism in the U. S. A 117, 273 

100 Things You Should Know About Communism and Religion 57, 182 

100 Things You Should Know About Communism and Education 41, 169 

100 Things You Should Know About Communism and Labor 61,351 

100 Things You Should Know About Communism and Government 33, 439 

100 Things You Should Know About Communism (Series Bound To- 
gether with Spotlight on Spies) 8,116 

Spotlight on Spies 8,971 

Hearings Regarding Communist Espionage in the United States Gov- 
ernment 60 

Hearings Regarding Communist Espionage in the United States Gov- 
ernment, Part II 75 

Report on Soviet Espionage Activities in Connection with the Atom 

Bomb 580 

Interim Report on Communist Espionage in the United States Govern- 
ment 299 

Soviet Espionage Within the United States Government 254 

Citations by Official Government Agencies of Organizations and Publi- 
cations found to be Communist or Communist Fronts . 6, 933 

Documentary Testimony of General Izyador Modelski 294 

Soviet Espionage Activities in Connection with Jet Propulsion and Air- 
craft 28 

Report of the Committee on Un-American Activities to the United States 

House of Representatives, Eightieth Congress 500 

Review of the Scientific and Cultural Conference for World Peace 2, 004 

Report on the American Slav Congress 208 

Hearings Regarding Communist Infiltration of Radiation Laboratory 
and Atomic Bomb Project at the University of California, Berkeley, 

California, Part 1 11 

Hearings Regarding Communist Infiltration of Minority Groups. Part 2_ 25 

Hearings Regarding Communist Infiltration of Labor Unions, Part 1 — 10 

Hearings Regarding Communism in the District of Columbia, Part 1 5 

Report on the Congress of American Women 38 

Total 338, 825 


Looking back upon 4 years' experience as a standing committee of 
the House of Representatives and almost 7 years as a special commit- 
tee, we feel more than ever impressed with the insidiousness and vast- 
ness of the ramifications of the Communist movement and the urgent 
necessity for unflagging efforts to expose and curb its machinations. 
To further the effectiveness of these investigations and to curb the sub- 
versive activities of the Communist Party, United States of America, 
its agents and its dupes, the committee recommends the following 
action by the incoming House of Representatives : 

1. The statute of limitations in espionage cases must be amended. 
Under our present laws we have found that a long list of Communist 
operatives who have committed acts of espionage and treachery in the 
interest of a foreign power have remained immune to punishment due 
to the present form of the statute of limitations. 

2. The nature of modern war — the fact that nations find them- 
selves confronted nowadays with undeclared but actual warfare — 
makes it necessary that the legal definition of treason, and the penalties 
attached thereto, be broadened to cover a period like the present cold 


3. Experience during the past 5 years has demonstrated that the 
embassies of Communist-dominated countries constitute a focal point 
of Communist espionage and propaganda. Such activity should be 
limited by proper safeguards sternly enforced. 

4. H. R. 3903 providing safeguards against the employment of 
subversive individuals in defense plants should be adopted. 

5. H. R. 10 providing for the supervision and detention of unde- 
portable aliens should be enacted into law in order to deal with thou- 
sands of alien Communists refused acceptance by the country of their 

6. It would be advantageous to enact legislation creating a presump- 
tion of law that a committee quorum, once established, continues to 

7. Effective action against the well-coordinated, interlocking Com- 
munist network requires the utmost teamwork among branches of the 
Government. Petty rivalry or separatism can only work to the ad- 
vantage of the Communists. A small bit of information in the hands 
of one agency may well be the missing link of an entire chain of evi- 
dence in the hands of another agency. Hence, the committee recom- 
mends the fullest cooperation between legislative and executive arms 
of the Government in the matter of dealing with subversive activities. 
Modification of the Executive order in loyalty and investigative 
cases is i-ecommended for consideration. 

8. In a number of cases we have found that subversive elements will 
submit information to one arm of the Government when it suits their 
purpose and will withhold it from another. Communist trade union- 
ists will deny their affiliations before the National Labor Relations 
Board and refuse to affirm or deny them before a congressional com- 
mittee. They will deny them in filling out Form 57 in applying for 
Federal employment and refuse to affirm or deny such affiliations be- 
fore this committee. It is highly necessary that the Department of 
Justice take effective action against those who would make a tragic 
joke of law enforcement. Here, again, there is room for maximum co- 
operation between the legislative and executive arms of Government. 

9. In connection with national defense contracts involving secret 
and classified work for the Atomic Energy Commission, the iVrmy, 
Navy, and Air Force, legislation should be enacted which subjects 
officers of national labor unions having bargaining contracts to the 
same security standards as members who have access to secret or 
classified material. 



The Communist problem is comparatively new in the field of Ameri- 
can jurisprudence. This accounts for the paucity of literature regard- 
ing communism in the field of law. In fact, there are evidences of 
confusion on the subject even among leading members of our legal 
profession who have not had the time and the opportunity to apply 
themselves to an intensive study of this complicated subject. The 
committee has therefore decided to append to this report a digest of 
existing National and State legislation on subversive activities which 
was made by the Maryland State rommission on Subversive Activities, 
under the chairmanship of Frank B. Ober. 

We hope thereby to stimulate fruitful discussion on this vital subject 
in law journals and law schools, and among National and State legis- 
lators and law-enforcement officers.^ 

Excerpts Fkum Report of Commission ox Subversive Activities, Maryland, 

January 1949 (pp. 72-99) 

in general 

Statutes against snbrersive activities have their origin in the treason lavrs of 
the United States, enacted in 1790, and date back to the Civil War on a state 
level. With the advent of the recent world conflict, and during the period of 
unrest which has followed in its wake, there has been an increasing tendency 
on the part of the State Legislatures and of the Congress to enact legislation 
designed to suppress foreign propaganda and subversive activities. 

In addition to the treason laws, general statutes against conspiracy and incite- 
ment to crime, and various war measures found in many states, the legislative 
approach to this problem has assumed a variety of forms. These include : 
general sedition, criminal anarchy, and criminal syndicalism laws ; statutes 
against the display of sjTiibols denoting sympathy with the ideals or forms of 
government inimical to American concepts, commonly called red-tlag laws; 
statutes designed to suppress the activities of political parties and candidates who 
are antagonistic to the American form of government; legislation requiring 
teachers, public officers, employees and others to subscribe to oatlis of loyalty to 
support state and federal constitutions ; and various measures penalizing or with- 
holding privileges from persons or organizations guilty of subversive activities. 

1 Since the report of the Maryland Commission on Subversive Activities was released 
in January 1949 various State legislatures have shown increasing concern with the 
problem of communism. According to Newsweek. April 11, 1949, p. 24. for example: 

"The New York State Legislature passed a bill directing the State Board of Regents to 
purge the public schools of teachers with subversive leanings. 

"The Texas Legislature passed a bill instructing the presidents of all State-supported 
colleges to expel all Communist students and teachers. 

"In Kansas, a bill passed making 'subversive activities' punishable by fines and jail 

"The Illinois Legislature prepared to pass bills making it a crime to be a Communist, 
and barring Communists as teachers from the schools. 

"In New Jersey four bills barring disloyal persons from State jobs seemed sure to pas.s. 

"In Georgia and New Mexico, new laws were on the books barring subversives from 
holding public jobs. 

"Similar legislation was on the way in Missouri, Oregon, Connecticut, New Hampshire, 
and California." 



One or more of these types of measures have been enacted in practically every 
state. Maryland, however, stands virtually alone in the respect it has, at the 
moment, practically no legislation touching any of these matters. 

This digest endeavors to summarize all pertinent statutes of the United States 
and of the several states as they now exist. Summaries of the general and 
special laws, with citations, have been supplied and, for convenience, the material 
has been arranged both by states and by subject matter. 

Questions of constitutionality and prolilems of administration and of enforce- 
ment are not included herein. These matters are of utmost importance but are 
left for consideration by the Commission. 

For convenience, tlu-ee appendices have been prepared as follows : 
Appendix A — Federal Statutes. 
Appendix B — State Statutes — By States. 
Appendix C — State Statutes — By Subject Matter. 

In addition thereto and for ready reference, a table of all state legislation 
will be found on page 77.' 


The general laws against subversive activities are usually designated as 
sedition, criminal anarchy, and criminal syndicalism statutes. More than three- 
fourths of the states have laws of one or more of these types, some liaving single 
statutes including two or more thereof. This digest does not include sabotage 
and related statutes of the other states, since Maryland enacted during the recent 
war the model sabotage statute proposed for State adoption and the Commission 
has made recommendations with respect to its expiration date. Excluded also 
are general conspiracy statutes which may be held to cover many types of sub- 
version, laws against incitement to crime generally, and numerous other measures 
effective during wartime only. 

The effect of these general laws against subversive activities is to penalize the 
advocacy in any manner of the overthrow of the government of the United States 
or of the state by force or violence, or by other unlawful means. It is true that 
each of the statutes, by whatever name it is designated — whether criminal 
anarchy, criminal syndicalism, or sedition — defines the term for its own purposes, 
and there are numerous variations in the terminology used, but the practical 
effect of each would probably be very similar. The statutory lines of distinction 
between these different offenses is so fine as in many instances to be almost 


Sedition might be termed a mild form of treason. Treason implies the use of 
force or violence against the government, seeking its overthrow by levying war 
or giving aid and comfort to its enemies. Sedition has a similar connotation, 
but its objectives are sought by means of oral or printed utterances, or similar acts 
by which the state is held in contempt, people are incited to flout its laws, and it is 
made difficult for the state to carry out its inherent governmental functions. Open 
violence is not involved, but the tranquillity of the state is disturbed. 

Although the terminology used in criminal syndicalism and criminal anarchy 
statutes is relatively uniform, there is greater variance in the wording of sedition 
laws. The Illinois sedition statute may be considered representative : 

"It shall be unlawful for any person openly to advocate, by word of mouth 
or writing, the reformation or overthrow, by violence or any other unlawful 
means, of the representative form of government now secured to the citizens of 
the United States and the several states by the Constitution of the United States 
and the constituions of the several states." 

Many of these laws also specifically include the uttering, writing, or publication 
of abusive matter against the flag, military forces, or unifoi-ms of the nation, 
when calculated to bring them into disrepute. In New Jersey, incidentally, the 
sedition statute expressly penalizes the inciting of an insurrection among any 
class or portion of the population. See also the Virginia statute which prohibits 
conspiracy for the incitement of violence between whites and negroes, and 
vice versa. ; 

* Page 77 refers to original publication. See pp. 29 and 30, this report. 


Criminal Anarchy 

Anarchism is the oldest of subversive ideologies and advocates the complete 
-elimination of the state, usually by assassination of the heads thereof. The 
Alabama statutory definition might be considered typical of the various laws 
on this subject : 

"Criminal anarchy is the doctrine that organized government should be over- 
thrown by force or violence, or by assassination of the executive head or of the 
executive officials of government, or by any unlawful means. The advocating of 
such doctrine either by word of mouth or writing is a felony." 

Criminal SjindicaUsm 

The main difference between anarchy and syndicalism is the fact that in 
syndicalism class distinction is introduced. The latter is a type of trade-unionism 
on an industry-wide basis. It advocates the class struggle between the worker 
iind the property owner leading up to social revolution and collectivism. The 
workers are to gain control of each industry through strikes, sabotage, and the 
boycott. It is a militant movement aimed at both the property owner and the 
state. The goal is a free and flexible system of autonomous syndicates in all 
fields of production and distribution. Each industry is to be managed by the 
workers, then a federation of all fields of industry would be formed which in turn 
Avould comprise the state. 

Criminal syndicalism statutes resemble a blend of criminal anarchy laws and 
measures against incitement to insurrection. They include not only the political, 
but also the industrial and economic splaeres. The Iowa definition may be 
considered representative: 

"Criminal .syndicalism is the doctrine which advocates crime, sabotage, vio- 
lence, or other unlawful methods of terrorism as a means of accomplishing in- 
dustrial or political reform. The advocacy of such doctrine, whether by word of 
mouth or writing is a felony. * * *" 

Normally a definition of this type would seem to apply to very few of the 
organizations which dare offer themselves to the American public. However, 
the courts of last resort of at least two states have held the advocacy of the doc- 
trines of the Communist Party to be within the purview of criminal syndicalism 
statutes {People v. Ruthetihiirg (229 Mich. 315) ; State v. Boloff (138 Ore. 568)). 

The most unusual criminal syndicalism statute is the Washington law which 
is virtually equivalent to a sabotage measure. It is directed specifically toward 
a number of local industries, and it might be noted that Washington is the only 
state having two separate laws against criminal anarchy and syndicalism. 

Related Offenses 

Almost all of these types of general subversion statutes also declare it to be a 
felony to join any organization or voluntarily to assemble with any group advo- 
cating, justifying, or teaching subversive doctrines. A number of laws also 
prescribe a lighter penalty, usually punishment as a misdemeanor, for the owner 
or person in charge of a building knowingly to permit it to be used for furthering 
or advocating the unlawful overthrow of government. Persons who assemble 
for such unlawful purposes whether they belong to the subversive organization 
or espouse its doctrines, likewise are declared guilty of a misdemeanor. 

In most states having laws of these types the dissemination of the forbidden 
doctrines in any manner is a felony. In North Carolina and New York, however, 
the editors or proprietors of books or other printed matter are specifically made 
chargeable for wilful publication of the matter contained therein. In North 
Carolina the managers or other officials of the association by which such publica- 
tion is issued are also guilty of the offense if knowingly committed. 

In addition to the above, several states require subversive organizations or 
oath-bound societies to register with the state. Registration laws have been en- 
acted in some of the states. In North Carolina, incidentally, political or military 
organizations are absolutely forbidden, as is membership in such groups. South 
Carolina also has an espionage law. 

Penalties for Breach of Suhversion Laws 

Except as otherwise noted, violation of any of these laws against subversive 
activities is declared to be a felony, punishable by fine or imprisonment in the 
penitentiary, or both. Offenses considered less dangerous to the state are u.sually 
declared to be misdemeanors, punishable by imprisonment in the county jail, a 
smaller fine, or both. A few states also prescribe additional or unusual penalties 
for persons violating statutes against subversive activities. 


The most common additional penalty specified for violation of subversion laws- 
deals with the employment of violators by the state. For example, in Washington, 
no person convicted of criminal anarchy may be employed by the state or any de- 
partment or subdivision thereof for a period of five years after conviction. Idi 
Tennessee a person guilty of sedition is incapal)Ie of bearing any office of honor,, 
trust, or profit in the state government for three years, and may be required to 
give sureties for good behavior for as long as the court may require. In Illinois- 
the compensation of state employees or officers is withheld for sedition, and sucht 
persons are ineligible for state civil service appointments. In several other states- 
conviction of a person for sedition will bar him from public employment or- 
public office, or will be cause for his dismissal. 

A more striking penalty is that found in Pennsylvania. Persons there advocat- 
ing and taking part in a movement to change the form of government, not in ac- 
cord with the constitution, are ineligible to receive public assistance. New Jer- 
sey also denies subversive individuals the right to obtain a court order establishr 
iiig their date and place of birth. Alaska, by the way, disbars attorneys engaged, 
in such activities. 

RGSum6 of General Subversion Laws 

As previously noted, although there is a difference in the terminology used in* 
the various state laws against subversive activities, the practical effect and; 
the purpose of these measures would be very similar. They are intended to pro- 
hibit and punish acts and utterances tending toward the overthrow of the Ameri- 
can form of government by force or violence, or other unlawful means, or its 
change in any manner not provided by our constitutions and laws. Although- 
there are some variances in the extensiveness of the activities covered by these 
statutes, such differences appear not to be of importance, and there is apparently 
no outstanding examiile in any particular state of a complete measure for curb- 
ing seditious activities. No statute has lieen found which would penalize sub- 
versive activities not tending toward the unlawful overthrow of government^, 
with the exception of tlie inclusion in some general sedition statutes of a prohibi- 
tion on the advocacy of violence against a class of persons. 

In any attempt to draft comprehensive measures to cuili su)>versive activities^, 
the Commission of course must weigh its proposals a.uainst constitutional guar- 
antees of free speech, freedom of the press, and the right of lawful assemblage^ 


In addition to the general laws against sul)versive activities, a number of 
states have subversion measures of more specific application. For purposes of; 
this memorandum, there might be included within this group the so-called red- 
flag statutes, laws against subversive political parties and candidates for office 
and loyalty-oath laws applying to teachers, public officers and employees, and. 
others. As heretofore stated, a number of states also have laws making subver- 
sive activities a reason for discharge of state employees, or prohibiting certifica- 
tion of such persons for civil-service appointments. 

Red Flag Laivs 

The most common type of specific legislation designed to suppress the spreadi 
of subversive activities are the red-fiag laws, found in most of the States. These 
measures prohiltit the display of certain flags and other emblems as symbols of 
the advocacy or belief in revolution or radical activities antagonistic to the Ameri- 
can form of government. The West Virginia statute is summarized as follows : 

"It shall be unlawful for any person to have in his possession or to display 
any red or black flag, or to display any other flag, emblem, device, or sigu of any 
natui'e whatever, indicating sympathy with or support of ideals, institutions, or 
forms of government, hostile, inimical or antagonistic to the form or spirit of 
the Constitution, laws, ideals, and institutions of this State or of the United 

The statute, however, is somewhat broader than many laws of this type, since 
it declares the mere possession of the prohibited emblem to be unlawful. Ordi- 
narily violations of these laws are punished by fine or imprisonment, or a com- 
bination of both. Some states also have separate measures a.gainst the display 
of alien fiags from public luiildings, and prohibitions against the wearing of' 
foreign uniforms. Various laws effective during wartime only are also con-r- 
tained in the statutes in a number of states. 



Exclusion From Ballot 

Legislation of more recent ori.uiu against subversive activities is directed at 
political parties and candidates for public office advocating: doctrines inimical or 
hostile to the American form of government, especially communism. The Illinois 
provisions are perhaps representative of measures of this type: 

••* * * no political organization or group shall be qualified as a political 
party hereunder, or given a place on a ballot, which organization or group is 
associated, directly or indirectly with Communist, Fascist, Nazi, or other un- 
American principles and engages in activities or propaganda designed to teach, 
suliservience to the political principles and ideals of foreign nations or the over- 
throw by violence of the established constitutional form of government of the 
United States and tlie State of Illinois." 

A few of the states got at this problem by outlawing certain organizations, 
either bv name or bv principles. Some go farther, and in addition require each 
new pol'itical party "to tile an affidavit that it lacks affiliation with any foreign 
or subversive organization, and that it does not advocate the unlawful overthrow 
of the government. Other states attack not only the organization but the candi- 
dates, prohibiting all candidates having subversive principles or affiliations from 
appearing on the ballot. 

Loijaltt/ Oath Statutes 

The belief in the general susceptibility of youth to revolutionary ideas, and the 
theory that they might be disseminated in the .schools and colleges has led to the 
enactment of teacher loyalty oath laws, in a numl^er of states. These statutes 
provide generally that it shall be unlawful for any person to teach in an educa- 
tional institution unless such teacher first take an oath to support and defend 
the Constitution of the United States and of the particular state. In Florida 
and South Carolina, however, it is required that a prospective teacher satisfy 
the examiners as to his loyalty to the Constitution, though apparently no oath is 

A variety of penalties is provided for breach of these provisions. Some states, 
such as New York, merely declare teaching without subscribing the oath to be 
unlawful. Others invoke their perjury laws for giving false information. The 
usual provision, however, is that a teacher failing to take the required oath is to 
be denied employment. Fine or imprisonment is provided in some other states 
for persons teaching without taking the prescribed oath. Provisions are also 
found whereJjy the person in charge of an institution is to be lined for permitting 
such persons to teach, and prohibiting the payment of public funds to a teacher 
failing to take the required oath. 

In Vermont, in addition to the law prescriliing the loyalty oath for teachers, 
there is a measure jirohibiting their engaging in propaganda or subversive ac- 
tivities. In New York there is a separate act forbidding the use of text books 
containing .seditious matter in the public schools. 

While these loyalty oath statutes generally are directed toward school teachers, 
in S(mie states they apply also to public officers and employees. In still other 
states regulatory measures of one form or another apply specifically to legislators 
(Arizona), presidential electors (Georgia), the state guard (Louisiana), and 
state police (Utah). In addition, a few of the states expressly forbid use of 
school property or facilities for subversive activities. 

Table of State Legislation 

[X indicates legislation is in effect] 

See footnote at end of table. 
62106 — 50 5 


laws ' 

sion from 

ment to 

and em- 








A rkanvi<? 







C olorad 











Table of State legislation — Continued 
[X indicates legislation is in effect] 


laws 1 

sion from 

ment to 

and em- 




Idaho . - . -- 












Kentucky . .. 


Louisiana. ._ 


Maine ... 

Marvland . . .. 






Michigan .... _._. 



Mississippi .. _ 



Montana . .... _ 





Nevada . 


New Hampshire 

New Jersey . . 





New Mexico 

New York 




North Carolina ... .. 


North Dakota . 















Rhode Island 

South Carolina . 


South Dakota 
















West Virginia 















I Sedition, criminal anarchy, or criminal syndicalism. 

Appendix A — Federal Statutes 

Treason ({1790) i8 U. S. C. A., Sect. 1, 2). — Defined as levying war against 
U. S. or adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort within the 
U. S. or elsewhere, .while owing allegiance to the U. S. Penalty, death or, 
at the discretion of the court, not less than 5 years and not less than $10,000; 
incapable of holding office under the U. S. 

Misprision of Treason ( {1190) IS U. S. C. A., Sect. 3).— Concealment of knowl- 
edge of treason. Penalty, not more than 7 years and not more than $1,000. 

Inciting Rebellion or Insurrection {(1862) 18 U. S. C. A., Sect. 4). — Incite- 
ment, assisting or engaging in rebellion or insurrection against the authority 
of the U. S. or the laws thereof, or giving aid or comfort thereto. Not more than 
10 years, or more than $10,000, or both, and incapable of holding any oflice under 
the U. S. Members of armed forces who spread disaffection therein, or who incite 
to mutiny, etc., are punishable by death under Articles of War No. 4, 34 U. S. 
C. A., Sect. 1200. 

Criminal Conespondence With Foreign Governments {{1799) 18 U. S. G. A., 
Sect. 5). — Prohibits unauthorized correspondence or intercourse, verbal or in 
writing, with foreign government with intent to influence measures or conduct 
of any foreign government or any oflScer or agent thereof, in relation to disputes 
or controversies with the U. S. Penalty, up to 3 years and $5,000. 

Seditious Conspiracy {{1861) 18 U. S. C. A., Sect. 6). — Forbids conspiracy 
by two or more persons to overthrow or destroy by force the government of the 


U. S., or to levy war against them, or to oppose by force the authority thereof, 
or by force to prevent, hinder, or delay the execution of any law of the U. S., 
or by force to seize any property of the U. S. Penalty, not more than $5,000, or 
not more than 6 years, or both. 

Rccruitinn For Service Against U. S. ( (1S61) IS U. S. C. A., Sect. 7).— Prohibits 
recruiting soldiers or sailors with U. S. to engage in armed hostility against 
the same, or opening within the U. S. a recruiting station for the purpose. Pen- 
alt\-, not more than $1,000 and not more than 5 years. 

Enlistinn To Serve Aijainst The U. 8. {(ISrA) IS U. S. G. A., Sect. S).— 
Every person enlisted or engaged within the U. S. with intent to serve in armed 
hostility against the U. S. shall be fined $100 and imprisoned not more than 
three (3) years. 

Undermining Loiialty, Discipline, or Morale of Armed Forces {(1940) 18 
U. 8. C. A., Sect. 9). — Unlawful for any person, with intent to interfere with, 
impair, or intluence the loyalty, morale, or discipline of the military or naval 
forces of the U. S. : 

(a) To advise or urge insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, or refusal 
of duty by any member of the military or naval forces of the U. S. 

(b) To distribute any written or printed matter or advising or urging. 

(c) Includes all branches of service, even merchant vessels commis- 
sioned in the Navy or in the service of the Army or Navy, including 
Master, Officers and crew of such vessels. 

Penalty, up to $10,000, or 10 years, or both, and ineligible for Federal employ- 
ment for ") years. 

Advocating Overthrow of Government By Force {(WJfO) IS U. 8. C. A., Sect. 
10). — Unlawful for any person: 

(a) Knowingly or wilfully to advocate, teach, etc., the necessity or desira- 
bility of overthrowing or destroying any government in the U. S. by force or 
violence, or by tbe assassination of any officer of any such government. 

(b) With intent to cause the overthrow or destruction of any government 
in the U. S., to print, distribute, etc., any written or printed matter so 

(c) To organize or help to organize, or to become a member of any society 
or group so advocating. 

"Government in the U. S." defined to include states and their political sub- 
divisions. Penalty, up to 10 years or $10,000, or both, and ineligible for Federal 
employment for 5 years. 

Attempting or Conspiring to Commit Prohibited Acts {(1940) IS U. 8. C. A., 
Sect. 11). — Unlawful for any person to attempt or to conspire to commit any of 
the acts prohibited by the two preceding sections (9 and 10). Penalty, up to 10 
years, or $10,000, or both, and ineligible for Federal employment for 5 years. 

Subversive Organizations Registration Act ({1940)18 U. S. C. A., Sects. 
14-17). — Defines subversive organizations (Id., Sect. 14). Requires subversive 
organizations to register, exempts certain organizations and sets forth require- 
ments of registration statement (Id., Sect. 15). Authorizes Attorney General to 
make, amend, and rescind rules and regulations necessary to carry out the fore- 
going (Id., Sect. 16). Penalty, up to $10,000 or 5 years, or both. For making 
false statements, up to $2,000 or 5 years, or both. 

Espionage Act ( (1911) (in effect in war only) 50 U. S. G. A., Sects. 31-42).— 
Unlawfully obtaining or permitting to be obtained information regarding national 
defense, unlawfully disclosing information affecting national defense, commit- 
ting .seditious or disloyal acts or words in time of war, conspiring to violate fore- 
going sections, harboring or concealing violators of law. Punishment ranges 
from fines up to $10,000 and imprisonment up to 10, 20, or 30 years, and death. 

Interference With The Draft (Selective Service Act, Sect. 11 (1940), 50 U. 8. 
C. A., Sect. 311). — Interfering with the draft in various enumerated ways, fail- 
ing to register or report for service, or conspiring to do such prohibited things ; 
Subject to fine of not more than $10,000, or to imprisonment up to 5 years, or 

Enticing Desertion From Armed Forces ( (1877) 18 U. S. G. A., Sects. 94, 95.) — 
Applies to anyone enticing or attempting to entice desertion by any member of 
the armed forces, or harboring, concealing or refusing to .surrender a deserter. 
Penalty, up to 3 years and not more than .$2,000. Penalties up to $50 and 3 
donths, or both, for enticing workmen from arsenals or armories. 


Damagimi Fortiflcofions and Harhnr Defenses ((1898) 18 U. 8. C. A., 8ect. 
96). — Iiijuriug fortifications, harbor-defense system, etc., or wilfully violating 
any order or regulation of the President governing persons or vessels within de- 
fense sea areas. Subject to fine of not more than $5,0<X), or imprisonment up to 
5 years, or both. 

Trespassing Upon Military Reservations, etc. ((1909) 18 U. 8. C.A., Sect. 
97). — Entering military reservations, post, fort, or arsenal for any purpose pro- 
hilnted by law or regulation, or returning thereto after once being ejected : Pun- 
ishable up to $r)()0 or tj months, or both. 

Accessories To Crime ((llOJ,) 18 V. 8. C. A.. 8cct. 5.50 ) .—Whoever directly 
commits any offense defined in any law of the U. S.. or aids, abets, counsels, 
commands, induces, or procures its commission, is a principal. 

Conspiracy ( (1861) 18 U. 8. C. A., Sect. 88). — Conspiracy by 2 or more persons 
to commit any offense against the U. S. and any overt act by any one of tliem to 
effect the object of the conspiracy subjects each to penalties up to .$10,000 or 2 
years, or both. 

Threats Against The President ((1917) IS U. 8. C. A., Sect. 8.9 ) .—Wilful 
threats by mail or otherwise to kill or harm the President of the U. S. Punish- 
able up to 5 years, or $1,0C0. or both. 

Acting As Foreign Governmental Agent Without Notice To The Secretary Of 
State ((1917) 22 U. S. C. A., Sect. 233). — Anyone, other than a diplomatic or 
consular ( fficer or attache who acts in the U. S. as an agent of a foreign govern- 
ment without prior notification to the Secretary of State is subject to $."),000, or 
T) years, or both. 

Deportation of Alien Radicals ( (1920) 8 U. 8. C. A., Sect. 137).— Any alien who, 
at any time, shall be or shall have been a member of any one of the following 
classes, shall be excluded from admission into the U. S. : 

(a) Anarchists. 

(b) Opposers of organized government. 

(c) Advocates of violent overthrow of government, assault on govern- 
ment officers, or destruction of propt^rty. 

(d) Publishers, etc., of such doctrines. 

(e) Affiiiates of such publishors, etc. 

Provision for deportation of such aliens already within the U. S. Penalty, for 
unlawful return after deportation — up to 5 years, and deportation again fol- 
lowing iniprisonment. 

XatiiraIi.:ation Reqiiironoits ( (1906) 8 U. S. C. A.. Sect. 735). — Before being 
naturalized, petitioner must take oath in open court to support Constitution of 
the LI. S. and to renounce all allegiance to any foreign sovereignty, etc. Py Sect. 
705 of Title 8, naturalization is denied to any person who advocates overthrow 
of government, etc. (Provisions almost identical to Deportation Act, supra.) 

MaiVniii Ohscene or Indecent Matter ( [1909) 18 U. 8. C. A.. Sect. .i.5-i ) .— Pro- 
hibiis, under penalties up to 5 years and $1,000, the mailing of any ob.-'cene or 
indecent matter. The term "indecent" is expressly defined to include matter 
of a cliaracter tending to incite arson, murder, or assassination. 

Mailing Matter Which Violates Espionage Act. etc. ((1917) 18 U. S. C. A., 
Sects. 3-'i3. S'l-'f). — Matter is declared to I)e nonmailable which violates Espionage 
Act. or which contains anytliin'.v advocating or urging treason, insurrection, or 
forcib'e resistance to any law of the U. S. 

Importation of Subversive Literature ((1913) 19 U. 8. C. A., Sect. 1305).— 
Prohibits all persons from importing into the U. S. any printed matter advocat- 
ing treason or insurrection against the U. S., or forcible resistance to any law 
thereof. Provision for confiscation and severe penalties against any government 
ot!icer or employee aiding in such unlawful importation. 

Affidavits by Union Officials ( (7.97/7) 80th Congress, 1st Ses-nrm. Ch. 120, P. L. 
101). — This act, entitled the ''Labor Management Relations Act, 1947," but more 
commonly known as the "Taft-Hartley Law," among other things requires atfi- 
davlts of mron officials that they are not members of the Communist party. 

Appropriation Acts. — Mostly all, including the Hatch Act (Sect. 9-A), forbid 
us ' of funds in payment for services, etc. to communists and the like. 

False Statements or Entries ((19J,8) 18 U. 8. C. A., Sect. 1001).— This is a 
recent re-enactment of another statute which heretofore combined both fraud 
and false statements. The provisions were separated in the revision of the 
criminal cod;> and this statute is the one under which false statements in loyalty 
tests will be punished. 


Appendix B — State Statutes (By States) 


Criminal Anarchy {Code 19)0. Title I'l. ncvta. 19-22). — It is a felony to conspire, 
consort or collude with, or induce, aid, advise, etc., in any manner, any person to 
subvert, overturn, destroy or chansie the form of government of the state or U. 
S. by force or violence, or other than by orderly process of law. Penalties in- 
clude loss of state citizenship. Organizations so advocating are declared illegal 
and denied the riglits of political party, subject to dissolution or in.iunction 
against carrying on such function, and persons participating in such organization 
or meeting, so advocating are guilty of felony. 

Sedition (Session Laws lOZ/J, Chap. O-'/O). — The advocacy in any manner of 
the doctrine that organized government should be overthrown by force or violence, 
or by assatisination of the executive head or of the executive officials of govern- 
ment, or any unlawful means, or the .iustif.cation of .such doctrine, is a felony — 
also to become an organizer or a member of a group or assembly advocating such. 


Regulation of Teachers (Code 1939, Sert. .J-}-7002).— Loyalty oath statute. 
Rcf/iilation of LeijiHlators (5th Spec. Sess. 194S, House Concurrent Res. .}). — 
Loyalty oath statute. 


Sedition ((19'/3) Session Laics, Mar. 15. pp. -J6J-.',68, No. 2.3/).— Advocating or 
encouraging violence, sabotage or disloyalty punishable as a felony. Racial dis- 
orders, prejudices, or hatreds are included. 

Lictiiil(iti(m. of State Emploiiccs {19',.^) Id., Mar. IS, pp. 5S1-532, No. 2//,9).— Un- 
lawful for any person employed in any capacity by the State of Aikansas to have 
membership in any party or organization which advocates the overthrow of cur 
constitutional form of government. Punishable as a misdemeanor, subject to 
fine of not less than .$50 or more than $250. Persons convicted shall be removed 
by the Governor and thereafter rendered ineligible to hold any office or employ- 
ment in the State. 

Criminal Anarchy ((IO4I), Id., Mar. 26, pp. 75J,-755, Xo. 2,02).— This statute 
is, in effect, a combination of provisions both against sedition and anarchy. It 
outlaws the advocacy verlially or in writing of the overthrow of government by 
force or violence, or by the assassination of any government official. It further 
prohibits organization of or memliership in any such organization. Penalties: 

(a) Up to 10 years or $10,000, or both. 

(b) Ineligible for employment by State for 5 years. 

(c) Further provides, somewhat aml)iguously, that no member of a nazi, 
fascist, or communist society, or affiliated group, shall be eligible for em- 
ployment by the State. 

E.Tchision From Ballot ((19',1) 1<L. Mar. 26, pp. 155-757, Xo. 2PJ ) .—Directed 
specifically against the communist party and the commtinist international, but 
designed to cover any foreign or subversive organization advocating overthrow 
of government. This statute, similar to those in some of the other states, provides 
tl!at affidavits must l)e filed by all paities with the Secretary of State, who is 
empowered to investigate and l)ar any subversive party from the ballot. Pun- 
ishable by $in0 to $1,000 fine and not more than 6 months' imprisonment. (See of Field v. Hall. 201 Ark. 77, 143 S. W. (2d) 5(i7, wherein constitutionality 
of this act was upheld and the court, in mandanuis proceedings, refused to 
disturb the findings of the Secretary of State.) 

Conspiracy To Orerthrotr Government (19.37 Code, Sect. 3571). — Unlawful to 
con.spire to usurp or overthrow present form of government or to obstruct 


Reyulation of State Employees ( (19.',5) Session Laics, Apr. 27, p. 53S, c. 
123). — Forbids employment by any state agency or court of any person who 
either directly or indii-ectly carries on, advocates, teaches, justifies, aids, or 
abets a program of sabotage, force and violence, sedition or treason against the 
Government of the U. S. or of California. Any such person, including teachers 
who already are so employed, shall be discharged and such person shall not be 


compensated from the state treasury. Provision further is made (pp. 567-8) 
for disciplinary action against any employee who is or claims to be a citizen of 
a country with which the U. S. is at war, or a dual citizen of U. S. and of any 
such country, or who has taken an oath of or pledged allegiance to any such 
country, or who commits any act of disloyalty to the U. S. or its flag, or obstructs 
the war effort or defense preparations of the U. S. 

ReyulaUon of Schools ((WJ,5) July 10, pi). 2301-2, c. 1213).— Use of scliool 
property forbidden by any individual, society, group, or organization which ad- 
vocates, or has as one of its objects, the overthrow of the government of the U. S. 
or of the state, by force, violence, or other unlawful means. Any person who is 
affiliated with any siich oi'ganization is characterized as a sul»versive element. 
Governing Board shall determine who is a subversive element and is empowered 
to demand affidavits of facts. Perjury statutes are made appUcahle thereto. 

Regulation of Public Officers {(19!,1) Id., July 19, pp. 3228-9 c. 1281).— AMs 
a section to the Political Code, rendering supporters of foreign governments, and 
the like, ineligible to hold public office. Designed to curb oth column and permits 
anyone to purge himself of a foreign oath by petitioning Court and renouncing 
such allegiance. 

Criminal Syndicalism {{1919) Gen. Laws, Deering, 1937, Act 8428). — Anyone 
who in any manner by words, publications, or conduct, advocates, aids, etc., or 
justifies the doctrine advocating commission of crime, sabotage or unlawful acts 
of force and violence or terrorism as a means of accomplishing a change in indus- 
trial ownei'ship or control or political change is guilty of felony — also organizing 
or becoming a member of a group or assembly advocating such. 

Exclusion From Ballot {{19J,0) Elections' Code, Sects. 25Jj0.3-Jf). Similar to 
Arkansas statute. Applies to any part.v using the word "communist" in its 
name or which is affiliated with the communist party of the U. S. 

Subversive Organizations Registration- Act {{19^1) Session Laws, April 25, 
pp. 1236-1240, c. 183). — Requires registration with and detailed information to 
the Secretary of State by every corporation, association, society, camp, group, 
bund, political party, assembly, and every other body of two or more persons or 
members which directly or indirectly advocate overthrow of government. 
Penalty, fine of $1,000— $10,000 against the organization; $500— $5,000 and 6 
months to 5 years for officers, directors, trustees, etc. ; $10-— $1,000 and 10 days 
to one year for knowingly becoming or remaining a member of a subversive 

Fact Finding Committee {19^1-1948) . — Commission established to investigate 
and report on subversive activities. 


Sedition and Criminal Anarchy ( {1919) Stat. Ann., 1935, c. J,8, Sects. 15-29). — 
Advocating overthrow of government of U. S. or of Colorado defined as anarchy 
and sedition and made a felony ; likewise, advocating destruction of life or 
property or personal injury either as a general principle or in particular in- 
stances, as a means of affecting governmental, industrial, social, or economic 
conditions ; defining and making unlawful anarchistic and seditious associations 
and societies; serving as an officer or representative thereof; distributing any 
pamphlets or literature advocating any of the foi'egoing; and conspiring to 
do any of these things. Penalty : Not exceeding 20 years, or $10,000, or both. 

Regulation of Teachers {Stat. Ann., 1935, c. I46, Sects. 235-237) .—Loyalty 
oath statute. 


Incitement To Specific Acts of Violence {{1923) Gen. Stat. 1930, Sec. 6072).— 
Advocating damage to public or private property or assault upon Army. National 
Guard, or police force, or injury to any class or bodv of persons. Penalty up to 
10 years or $5,000. 

Sedition {{1939) Id., Sec. &039).— It is unlawful to speak, write, distribute, 
etc., any disloyal, scurrilous or abusive matter, concerning the form of U. S. 
government, its military forces, flag or uniforms, or any matter intended to bring 
them into disrepute, or which creates or fosters opposition to organized govern- 
ment — also to utter in an assemblage any doctrine or propaganda intended to 
injure U. S. or state government. Penalty, up to 20 years, $10,000, or both. 



Sedition ((1931) Rev. Code, 1935, Seet. 5156).— Defined as any verbal or writ- 
ten or printed utterance wliich proximately causes any violence or demonstra- 
tion of violence against either the U. S. or Delaware, and any part in organizing 
or becoming or remaining a memlier of any organization which advocates such 
purpose. Punishable by tine of $100 to $10,000 and imprisonment not exceeding 
20 vears ; either or both. 

Ejclusion From Ballot {(1935) Id., Sect. 1810).— ISio political party shall be 
recognized or given a place on the ballot which advocates the overthrow by force 
or violence, or which advocates or carries on a program of sedition or of treason 
by radio, speech, or press, of our local, state, or national government. Affidavit 
required of all new parties. 


Incitement To Specific Acts of Violence ( (1866) Comp. Gen. Laws, Sect. 7133).— 
Prohibits incitement of insurrection or treason, or attempt thereat by means of 
verbal or written utterance or other means. 

Criminal Anarchy ( (iS^i) Session Laws, Apr. 22, pp. 59-60, c. 20216).— Crim- 
inal anarchy, communism, naziism, and fascism prohibited, defined, and made a 
felony, subject to severe punishment. Statute further makes it unlawful for any 
owner, agent, etc., of any building knowingly to allow communist meetings therein. 

Regulation of Teachers {Stats., Sect. 231.18). — Loyalty oath statute. 


Inchtement To Specific Acts of Violence {(1866-72) Code Ann. 1936, Sects. 
26.901-904). — Similar to Florida's statute. Enacted during Civil War. 

Re<julation of Teachers (Session Laws 1935, Res. 5^). — Loyalty oath statute. 

Regulation of Presidential Electors (Act approved Oct. 2, 1948). — Loyalty oath 


Criminal Sijndicalism {{1917) Code Ann. 1932, Sects. i7.iJW-4).— Defined as 
the doctrine wliich wilfully and maliciously advocates crime, sabotage, violence, 
or unlawful methods of terrorism as a means of accomplishing industrial or po- 
litical reform. Criminal syndicalism applied to certain specific acts and made 
punishable as a felony and by imprisonment for not more than 10 years ; or by 
fine of not more than $5,000, or both. "Criminal syndicalist assembly" defined 
and participants made subject to similar penalties. Also, the owner, agent or 
caretaker of any place, building or room iiermitting such unlawful assemblage 
made subject to imprisonment for not more than one (1) year, or fine up to 
$500, or both. 


Regulation of State Employees { (19^5 Session Laws, July 17, p. 530, Sect. 6). — 
Members of communist, nazi, and fascist organizations barred from State Civil 

Exclusion From Ballot { {19J,1) amended 1943, Vol. 2, May 11, pp. 99, I4I, Sects. 
7-2, 10-2; Rev. Stat., 1947, ch. 46, sees. 7-2, 8-2, 10-2).— Bar a Communist Party 
from ballot. Similar to laws enacted in other states. Related statutes dis- 
qualify the Communist Party from making nominations for public office (111. 
1941, vol. 1, p. 604) and from qualifying under the primary election law (111., 1941, 
vol. 1, July 1, p. 607). 

Incitement To Specific Acts of Violence { (1861) Rev. Stat., State Bar Ass'n 
ed., 1939, c. 134, Sects. 10-11). — Applies to riot, rebellion, and insurrection. 

Sedition ( (1919) Id., c. 38, Sects. 558-560, 567, ) .—Unlawful to advocate orally 
or in writing the reformation or overthrow of representative form of state or 
U. S. government by violence or other unlawful means or to distribute material 
advocating such — also membership in, or giving aid to, or knowingly to attend 
meeting of, group so advocating. 

Regulation of Schools (Rev. Stat. 1947, c. I44. Sect. 4S.8).— Use of University of 
Illinois facilities withheld from subversive organizations. 

Compensation of State Employees and Officers Withheld for Sedition (Rev. 
Stat. 1947, G. 127, Sect. i66a ) .—Self-explanatory, 



Exclusion From Ballot ((1945), Session Latos, Mar. 6, pp. 766-767, ch. 208, 
Sect. 117). — Because this is a model statute and is deemed of considerable im- 
portance to the Commission, it is quoted herewitli, as follows : 

"No political party or organization shall be recognized and given a place on 
or have the names of its candidates printed on the ballot used at any election 
which advocates the overthrow by force or violence of the local, state, or national 
government, or which advocates, or carries on, a program of sedition or of trea- 
son, and which is afliliated or cooperates with or has any relation with any foreign 
government, or any political party or group of individuals of any foreign govern- 
ment. Any political party or organization which is in existence at the time of 
passage of this act, or which shall have had a ticket on the ballot one (1) or 
more times prior to any election, and which does not advocate any of the doc- 
trines the advocacy of which is prohibited by this act, shall insert a plank in its 
platform that it (^oes not advocate any of the doctrines prohibited by this act. 
No existing or newly organized political party or organization shall be permitted 
on or to have the names of its candidates printed on the ballot used at any elec- 
tion until it has filed an affidavit, by its officers, under oath, that it does not 
advocate the overthrow of local, state, or national government liy force or vio- 
lence, and tliat it is not affiliated with and does not cooperate with nor has any 
relation with any foreign government, or any political party, organization, or 
group of individuals of any foreign government. The affidavit herein ]n-ovided 
for shall be filed with the state election board or the county election board having 
ciiarge of the printing of the ballot on which such ticket is to appear. The 
election board with which such affidavit is filed shall make, or cause to be made, 
such investigation as it may deem necessary to determine the character and 
nature of the political doctrines of such existing or proposed new party and 
the expense paid by the state treasury out of funds not otherwise appropriated, 
provided the amount of such appropriation shall not exceed five hundred dollars 
(."{^oOO) ; and the expense of the investigation by the county election board shall 
be paid out of the funds in the treasury not otherwise appropriated, provided 
the amount of such appropriation shall not exceed three hundred dollars ($300) ; 
and if the board is of the opinion that such existing or proposed new party advo- 
cates doctrines which are in violation of the provisions of this act, or that any 
of the statements in said affidavit are false, the board shall not permit such 
ticket or candidates on the ballot." 

Sedition ({IDIH) nnriis Stat. Ann.. J9S3, Sects. 10.-1301-3).— Unlawful to 
advocate, incite, publish, etc., the overthrow of government of state or U. S. by 
force, or by physical injury to personal property, or by general cessation of 
industry. Penalty up to $5,000, five (5) years, or both. 

Retmlation of Teachers {Stat. Ann. 1933, Sects. 28-5112 to 28-5114) .—Loyalty 
oath statute. 

Ref/ulation of Public Officers {Stat. Ann. 1933, Sect. 49-303) .-Seditious per- 
sons not to hold public office. 


Sedition {{1917) Code, 1939, Sect. 12900). — Persons inciting or attempting to 
incite insurrection or sedition among a portion or class of the popidation to be 
punished. Any person who by speech, writing, or any means shall advocate 
subversit)n and destruction by force of government of state or U. S. or attempts to 
encourage opposition to such government is guilty of misdemeanor- — also member- 
ship in such organization. 

Criminal Syndicalism {(1919) 1946, Sects. 689.4 to 689.14).— Advocacy in 
any manner by speech, writing, etc., of doctrine which advocates crime, sabotage, 
violence or other unlawfiU methods of terrorism as a means of accomplishing 
industrial or political reform is felony. Includes justifying such doctrine or 
organizing or assembling with groups so advocating. 


Exclusion From Ballot { {1941) Session Laws, Apr. 7, pp. 336-7, c. 231).— Bars 
communist party specifically by name, but also applies to other subversive 
parties. Similar to statutes of other states. 

Criminal Siindicalism {{1920) Gen. Stat. 1935, Sects. 21.301-4).— Defined as 
"the doctrine which advocates crime, physical violence, arson, destruction of 
property, sabotage, or other unlawful acts or methods, as a means of accomplish- 


'iriir or effecting.' industrial or poltical eiuls, or as a means of effecting industrial 
•or political revolutiou, or for profit." (The italicized words do not appear in 
•other statutes.) Applied to specific acts and made punishable by 1-10 years 
and line of not more than $1,000, either or both. I'ruvision against use of 
premises for such unlawful purposes — $100-$;jOO ; 60 days-1 year, or both. 

Scilition [Gen. Stat. 11)35, Sect. 2 1-.,'^ J). —Applies to joining revolutionary 


Criminal Sjffidicalistn ((1920) Baldxoin's Rev. Stat. 1936, Sect. ^32.020).— 

It is an offense for any person to connuit, aid or counsel any crime, physical 

-violence, destruction of property, intimidation, etc., or other unlawful acts or 

methods to accomplish any political end or to bring about political revolution. 

Penaltv up to 21 years, $10,000, or both. 

Sedi'tion {(1920) Id., Sect. 432.030).— It is a felony to advocate or suggest 
in any manner any pul)lic disorder or resistance to, or change or modification of, 
the government, constitution or laws of U. S. or state by force or other unlawful 
means. It is a felony to teach or publish any doctrine, advocating, etc., crimi- 
•nal syndicalism or sedition, or to organize or lie member of organization advocat- 
ing such. Penalty, up to 21 years, $10,000, or both. 

Conspriaci/ to Commit Specific Acts of Violence {(19-'/7) Session Laws). — 
-Applies to intimidation or injury of individuals and damage to property. Ap- 
plied in labor disputes. 


Regulation of State Guard {{19.'i2) Session- Lairs, Julii 2. pp. 55-5(i, No. 5). — 
IMembers of the State Guard required to take oath that they do not belong to 
rsubversive organization. Sedition within the State Guard punishable by Court 

Incitement to Specific Acts of Violence (Crim.. Code 1942, Art. 113, Sect. 740- 
115). — Prohibits incitement of insurrection or sedition among any portion or 
•class of the population, or attempt by writing, speaking, or any means to do so. 

Note. — Louisiana had a regular statute on sedition which was enacted in 1917, 
Tint repealed in 1942. In 1942 the State also enacted a statute making it un- 
lawful to teach disloyalty or to urge refusal to honor the governments and 
flags of the U. S. and of Louisiana. This, however, was a temporary measure 
Avhich was designed to expire automatically at the end of the war. 


Nothing of interest found. 


Incitement To Specific Acts of Violence ( (1862) Code, Art. 27, Sect. 60S).— This 
IS a very old statute applying to treason against the state. It prohibits secret 
■or public meetings, or secret clubs to encourage secession of Maryland from the 
U. S. It is cited only because of its historical interest and because it appears 
still to be on the statute books. 

Commission on Suttrersive Activities (19.'i8). — Senate .Joint Resolution No. 2 
■established this Commission as a temporary commission for the sole purpose of 
making this report, and requires foruuilation and submission of legislative pro- 
gram to 1949 Legislature. 

Regulation of State Employers and Public Officers ((Consiitutional Amend- 
ment) Acts 1947, c. 721). — Approved by electorate, November 2, 1948. "No per- 
son who is a member of an organization that advocates the overthrow of the 
■Government of the United States or of the State of Maryland through force or 
violence sliall be eligil)le to hold any office, be it elective or appointive, or any 
other position of profit or trust in the Government of or in the administration of 
the of this State or of any county, municipality or other political sub- 
division of this State." Note, however, that it applies to members only, not to 
other subversive individuals. 


Criminal Anarchy ( (1919) Laics, 1913, eh. 264, ^^ect. 11).— It is a felony to ad- 
vocate, advise, counsel, etc., in any manner the assault on a public official, killing 
■of any person, unlawful destruction of property, or overthrow by force or violence 


of government of state. Persons convicted of violation of this section not to per- 
form duties of teacher or administrator in public or private educational institu- 
tion, and such performance can be restrained by court. Further penalty up to 
$1,000, 3 years, or both. 

Regulation of Teachers (Sessi07i Laws 1948, ch. 160). — Loyalty oath statute. 


Sedition ( (1935) Stat. Ann. 1938, Sect. 28.241-3).— Prohibits advocacy of over- 
throw of government of U. S. or of any state by force or violence. Provides that it 
shall not be construed to abridge freedom of speech or press, or peaceful picketing^ 
Penalty, not more than 5 years or $.5,000, or both. 

Criminal Syndicalism ( (1919) Id., Sect. 28.235-6). — The advocacy in any man- 
ner by word of mouth, writing, etc., of the duty or propriety of crime, sabotage,, 
violence, or other unlawful methods of terrorism as a means of accomplishing, 
industrial or political reform, etc., or the justifying of such acts, or becoming: 
an organizer or member of an organization or assemblage advocating such, is a 
felony. Penalty 10 years, $5,000, or both. 

Subversive Organizations Registration Act ((1947) Ses'sion Laws, No. 134)- — 
Requires subversive organizations to register and to identify their published: 
material. Penalty, up to 5 years, $5,000, or both. 

Regulation of Teachers (Mason's 1940 Supp., Sect. 7615). — ^Loyalty oathj 


Crim,inal Syndicalism ((1917) Laws 1917, Sect. 10057-60) .—It is a felony to 
advocate in any manner by word of mouth, writing, etc., the doctrine advocating 
crime, sabotage, violence, or other unlawful methods of terrorism as means of 
accomplishing industrial or political ends ; also to be a member of, or assemble 
with, group advocating such. Penalty, 10 years, $5,000, or both. Owner, lessor,. 
agent, or occupant of a building permitting such unlawful assemblage guilty of" 
gross misdemeanor and subject to 1 year, $500, or both. 


Nothing of interest found. However, in 1942, Mississippi, like Louisiana,, 
passed an act m-aking it unlawful to teach disloyalty or to urge refusal to honor 
the U. S. or State flags. Like the Louisiana act, it was a temporary measure and. 
was designed to expire automatically at the end of the war. 


Conspiracy to Commit Specific Acts of Violence ((1845) Rev. Stat. 1939, p.. 
1019, Sect. 4270-71). — Prohibits conspiracy to overthrow or interfere with gov- 
ernment, to levy war against any part of the people, or to remove them forcibly 
out of the State, or from their habitations. Note that this statute ante-dates- 
the Civil War. 


Sedition ( (1919) Rev. Code, 1935, Sect. 10737-8) .—The uttering, printing, writ- 
ing, publishing, etc., of disloyal, profane contemptuous slurring, etc., language 
about U. S. government or form of government of U. S., U. S. Constitution or 
flag, soldiers or sailors of U S. or uniforms of such, etc., or any language cal- 
culated to bring such into contempt, scorn or disrepute, or language calculated tO' 
incite resistance to U. S. or state authority, etc., is unlawful. Penalty, fine of from 
$200-$20,000 and imprisonment from 1-20 years. 

Criminal Syndicalism ( (1918) Id., Sect. 10740-4). — It is a felony in any manner 
to urge the doctrine which advocates crime, violence, force, destruction of prop- 
erty, etc., or other unlawful acts or methods as a means of accomplishing indus- 
trial or political ends, or revolution, etc., to be a member of organization or 
assembly advocating such. Penalty, $200-$l,000 ; 1-5 years. Further inhibi- 
tion against use of premises, punishable as misdemeanor. 

Note. — In 1941 Montana passed a temporary war measure designed to insure- 
the reemployment in State and Civil Service of veterans and prohibited the 
filling of any such vacancy with a communist or member of the German-Americani 
Bund. Why the act was limited to vacancies created by military service and 


why it did not, instead, prohibit the appointment or employment of communists, 
etc.. in all positions of state employment, are not apparent. 
Regulation of Teachers' {Rev. Code 1935, Sect. i327.i).— Loyalty oath statute. 


Criminal St/ndicalism ( (1919) Rev. Stat. 19J,3. Sects. 28.815-17).— It is a felony 
by word of mouth or writing, to advocate, suggest, etc., the propriety, necessity, 
etc., of crime, physical violence, destruction or damage of property etc., or 
sabotage, as a means of accomplishing industrial or political reform, or for 
profit — also to organize or be a member of an organization advocating such^ 
Penalty, 1-10 years, up to $1,000, or both. 


Criminal SyndicaHsm {{1919) Comp. Laws, 1929, Sects. 10560-^) .—It is a- 
felony to urge, teach, justify, etc., in any manner, the doctrine which advocates 
crime, sabotage, violence, or unlawful methods of terrorism as means of accom- 
plishing industrial or political reform, or to be a member or organizer of a group 
or assembly advocating such. Penalty, up to 10 years, $5,000, or both. Prohi- 
bition against use of premises, punishable as misdemeanor. 

Regulation of Teachers (Stats. 1947, Sect. 322). — Loyalty oath statute. 

Criminal Anarchy {Comp. Laws 1939, Sects. 10296-10299).— It is a felony to 
advocate by speech, printing, etc., or in any manner, the doctrine that organized 
government should be overthrown by force or violence, or by assassination, or 
other unlawful means — or to be a member of assembly advocating such. 


Sediti077 { {1919) Put). Laws 1926, eh. 39',, See. 26, 28-30).— Prohibits advocacy 
of overthrow or change in government of U. S. or New Hampshire, or interference 
with any public or private right by force or unlawful means. Also prohibits 
assembling for such purposes; likewise, introducing into the state, publishing, dis- 
tributing, or having in possession for distribution any matter including pictures, 
advocating overthrow. Penalty, up to 10 years, or $5,000, or both, and injunction 
provision for destruction of books, pictures, etc. 


Criminal Anarchy {{1902) Rev. Stat. 1937, Vol. 1, Sec. 2; i 7.3-7-9). —Prohibits- 
advocating anarchy, becoming a member of an anarchistic organization or society 
or introducing or circulating any printed matter inciting or tending to incite 
anarchy. Penalty, not more than $2,000 nor 15 years, or both. 

Incitement to Specific Arts of Violence {{1908) Id. 2: 173-10-11) .-Vrohihits 
advocating the burning or destruction of property; assaults upon the Army, Na- 
tional Guard, or police force ; killing or injuring any class of persons or any 
individual ; and the publishing or circulation of any book, etc., tending to incite 
such unlawful acts. Penalty, up to 7 years, $100-$2,000, or both. 

Sedition {{1918) Id. 2: 173-12-22).— Prohibits: 

(a) Inciting or attempting to incite insurrection or sedition. Penalty, not 
more than $10,000, nor more than 20 years, or both. 

(b) Advocating subversion or destruction of State or Federal Government. 
Not more than $2,000 or 10 years, or both. 

(c) Attending meeting or joining society advocating destruction of ^tate- 
or Federal government. Penalty, $2,000, 10 years, or both. 

(d) Printing or producing books, pamphlets, pictures, emblems, etc., incit- 
ing destruction of State or Federal government. Up to $2,000, 7 years, or 

(e) Selling, distributing, or possessing books, pamphlets, pictures, em- 
blems, etc., inciting destruction of State or Federal government. Up to 
$2,000, 7 years, or both. 

(f ) Letting rooms or buildings to organizations advocating destruction of 
State or Federal government. Up to $2,000, 7 years, or both. 

(g) Hiring rooms or buildings for organizations advocating the above. 
Up to $2,000, 7 years, or both. 

(h) Allowing use of building by such organizations. Up to $2,000, 7 years, 
or both. 

(i) Displaying red or black flag or other emblem inciting destruction of 
State or Federal government. Up to $2,000, 15 years, or both. 


(j) Displaying flag, picture, etc., advocating overthrow of government. 
Up to $2,000, 7 years, or both. 

(k) Opposing enlistments or advocating noncorporation with Federal 
government in carrying on war. Up to $2,000, 7 years, or both. 


(a) German- American Bund Auxiliary. — Charter repealed and trustees di- 
rected to of its property and terminate its business forthwith. (1941), 
'Session Laws, June 3, p. 571, ch. 1S5. 

(b) Bar to Order EstnbllshUuj Date and Place of Birth ((19.',2) Id., May 2, 
p. SJf8-50, ch. 95). — Prohibits the Courts from entering any such Order in the case 
of any person who is engaged in, or who believes in, or who belongs to any organi- 
zation which advocates overthrow of government. 

(c) 8i(bversire Activities Investigation Commission ( {19^7) Assembly Con- 
current Res. No. 11, April 7, W'P). — Governor directed to appoint Commission to 
investigate subversive activities within the public schools and all other schools 
and Universities within the State. Report to be filed and legislation recom- 

Regulation of Teachers {Rev. Stats. 1937, Sect. 18:13-9).— 'Loyalty oath 


Sedition ( (1919) Stat. Ami. 1929, Sec. 35.3101-5) .—Frohih'its any act aimed at 
destruction of government, or which is antagonistic to or in opposition to or- 
ganized government, inciting revolution or opposition to such government. Em- 
ployers knowingly employing persons so engaged are punishable. Penalty, up 
to 10 years, or $1,000, or both. Note: Held unconstitutional in State v. Diamond 
(1921),27N. M. 477. 


Regulation of State Employees and Teachers ( (19-iO) Session Laws, April 17, 
p. 1 -',99-1500, ch. 56-'f, Superseding Laws 1939, ch. 547). — Provides that no person 
shall be appointed to any ofiice or position in the service of the State or of any 
civil division or city thereof, nor sliall any person presently so employed be 
continued in such position, nor shall any person be employed in the public 
service as superintendents, principals, or teachers in a public school or any other 
:state educational institution, who : 

(a) Advocates or teaches the overthrow of government by force, violence, 

(b) Prints, publishes, edits, issues, or sells any book, paper or document 
advocating such doctrine. 

(c) Organizes, or helps to organize or becomes a member of any such 

Further provides for right of appeal and hearing in open court for anyone 
aggrieved thereby. 

Criminal Anarrhg {(1902) Thompson's Laws 1939, Part 1, Art. 14, Sects. 160- 
166). — Defined and applied to any person advocating anarchy or assembling for 
such purpose. Penalty, up to 10 years, .$.j,OUO, or both. Provisions against use 
of premises for such unlawful purposes. Not more than 2 years, or $2,000, or 
both. Contains provision eximerating editors for publication of such matters, 
without knowledge, and when promptly disclaimed upon discovery. Also grants 
immunity from prosecution to witnesses who produce self-incriminating evidence. 

Subversive Organizations Registration Act (Thompson's Laws, Civil Rights 
Law, Sect 53-56). — Registration of constitution, membership list, etc., required. 


Sedition ((1941) Session Laws, p. 4^-49, ch. 37). — Unlawful in any manner 
wilfully to advocate, etc., the doctrine that the government of the state or U. S., 
or any political subdivision, shall be overthrown or overturned by force or violence 
■or other unlawful means. It is a felony to advocate in any manner the duty, 
propriety, etc., of overturning government of U. S. or political subdivision by 
force or violence, or other unlawful means, or to print, disseminate, etc., writing, 
advocating, etc., that doctrine. Includes membership in organization advocating 
such. Editors, proprietors, etc., of newspapers, etc., are chargeable witli matter 
published therein, as are managers of associations, etc., by which such were 


lucitnucnt to ^'^pceific Arts of Violnicc ((I8GS) Gen. ."^tat. 19',3. Art. 3, f^ec. 
jJf.S.lO). — Applies to rebellion and insurrection. Membership in secret political 
or military organizations also prohibited. 

Kci/iilaiion of State Ewployecs {(Gen. Stats. 191,1, ch. 14, Sect. i2.i).— This- 
is not a separate statute but was enacted as an amendment to the .sedition statute, 
supra. It provides that seditious individuals shall not be employed by the State- 
and that persons alreadj- employed, who engage in subversive activities, shall 
be discharged. 


Regulation of Teachers {Rev. Code 19J,3, Vol. 2, Sect. i5-^70/).— Loyalty oatb 


criminal Syndicalism {{1919} Page's Gen. Code Ann., eh. 22, Sec. 13^2-23- 
26).— It is a felony to urge, by word of mouth or writing, the doctrine whicli 
advocates crime, sabotage, violence, and other unlawful methods of terrorism, 
as means of accomplishing industrial or political reform. Includes joining as- 
sembly or organization advocating such. Penalty, up to 10 years. $."),0(I0, or 
both. " I'ermitting use of premises for such unlawful purposes declared a mis- 

Exclusion From Ballot ( {1941) Session Laics, June 4. p. 586-88}. — Subversive 
parties excluded. Statute siuiilar to that in other states. 


Exclusion From Ballot {{IS-il) Session Lairs, May 15, p. 91-93).— Bins Com- 
munist Party by name; also the Third Communist International and all parties 
directly or indirectly affiliated therewith. Kequires filing of affidavits with Sec- 
retary of State and makes provisions for investigation, hearing, and appeal. A. 
comii'anion statute renders members of sul)versive groups ineligible as candidates 
at primary elections (Okla. 1941, May 12, p. 100-102). 

Regnlaiion of Public Offieers and Emploijees {(1941) Id., May 15, p. 209- 
11). — Subversive individuals disqualified from public ofiice or State employ- 
ment, and subject to removal. This statute contains an unusual provision in that 
it also subjects the appointing officer to removal for appointing a subversive 

Crimineil Syndicalism {{1919) Stat. 1941, Title 21, See. 1261-4).— It is a 
felony to advocate, etc., by word of mouth or writing, the doctrine which ad- 
vocates, etc., the duty, propriety, etc., of crime, physical violence, destruction of 
property, or other unlawful acts or methods, as a means (;f accomplishing indus- 
trial or political ends or revolution, or for profit. (Includes joining assembly or 
organization advocating such, which is punishable as a misdemeanor). Penalty^ 
up to 10 years, $5,0(X), or both. 

Regulation, of Teachers (Harlow's Stats. 1941, ch. 10, Sect. 961). — Loyalty oath 


Exclusion From Ballot {{1941) Session Laws, April 2, p. 861, ch. .^7.9).— Pro- 
vides that no person shall be a candidate for public office who is affiliated with 
any organization which teaches the doctrine of, or advocates, the overthrow of 
the goverinnent of the U. S. by force or violence. The name of no such person, 
as a candidate, shall be placed upon any ballot within the state and no such 
person shall be eligible for appoinimtnt to a public office. Note that this statute 
is directed against the individual and not against the party or organization. 

Con.s'piracg to Commit Felony (1931). — A 1919 statute on criminal syndi- 
calism was repealed and replaced by this general statute on conspiracy. Penalty^ 
up to 3 years, .$1,000, or both. 

Regulation of Teachers (Comp. Laws Ann. IBJfO, vol. 8, Sect. 111-2102). — 
Loyalty oath statute. 


Exclusion From Ballot ( (19^1) Session Laws, July 28. pp. 526-530, Xo. 213). — 
Subversive groups and parties prohii)ited from nominating candidates for public 
office. Provision for affidavits to be filed with Secretary of State, investigation,, 
determination, and appeal to the courts. 


Regulation of State Employees {{I94I) lb., pp. 530-531, No. 214). — State em- 
ployment denied to subversive individuals. Provision for removal for those 
already so employed. Further provision for hearing and appeal to the Courts. 

Sedition {(1919) Amended 1921, 1939. Purdon's Stat. Ami, 19^0, Siipp. Sect. 
4207). — Any writing, publication, printing, utterance, conduct, etc., individually 
•or in combination, with intent : 

(a) To cause outbreak of violence against state or U. S. 

(b) To encourage persons to engage in conduct with view to overthrow or 
destroy government of state or U. S. 

(c) To encourage persons to do any act to bring U. S. or state government 
into disrepute. 

(d) To incite persons to harm public official, his property, or i^ublic prop- 
erty, is a felony. 

Includes organizing or becoming member of assembly or group with policies 
advocating such. Punishment up to 20 years, $10,000, or both. 


(a) Welfare and Puhlic Assistance {(194.3) Session Laws, No. 191, Sec. 6, p. 
43S). — Except as otherwise specifically provided in the case of pensions for the 
blind, welfai-e and public assistance is denied to subversive individuals. 

(b) Wrtr Opposition {(1S61) amended 1939, Purdon's Stat. A7in. 194O Stipp., 
Sec. 4203). — Prohibits dissuading persons from entering service of the U. S. or 
Pennsylvania, with intent to oppose or subvert the State or Federal government. 

(c) Regulation of Police Force (Session Laws 1941, ch. 45). — Subversive indi- 
viduals disqualified as members of Police Force under Civil Service in cities. 


Criminal Syndicalism and Anarchy {(1919) Gen. Laics, 1938, cli. 604). — Con- 
tains a special wording, viz, prohil)iting "language intended to incite a defiance 
or disregard of the Constitution or laws of Rhode Island or U. S." Further 
prohibits advocacy of any change in form of government except as provided by 
Constitution or other laws, advocacy of assassination of government officials, or 
the destruction or damaging of any public or private property as an incident to 
a programme of force, violence or revolution, or wilfully displaying any flag 
or emblem proposed to be superior to the form of government of the U. S. 
Penalty, up to 10 years, $10,000, or both. Statute contains membership and con- 
spiracy clauses and any meeting for such purpose is unlawful assembly, subject 
to dispersal in the same mann(3r as riotous, tumultuous, or treasonable assemblies. 


Regulation of Teachers (Code 1942, Sect. 5324 (3) ).— Loyalty oath statute. 


Criminal Syndicalism {(1918) Code 1939, Sec. 13.0801-4) .—^t is a felony to 
advocate, further, etc., in any manner, the doctrine, which teaches, advocates 
or practices crime, sabotage, violence or other methods of terrorism, or the de- 
struction of life or propery, for the accomplishment of social, economic, in- 
dustrial or political ends — and includes possession, display, or publication or 
writing advocating such with intent to so advocate, or the organizing or as- 
sembling with persons advocating such, or acting in pursuance of that purpose. 
Penalty, 1-25 years, $1,000-$10,000, or both. 

Regulation of Teachers (Code 1939, Sect. 15.3702).— IjOjalty oath statute . 

Regulation of State Employees (Code 1939, Sect. 17.0107). — Applies to aliens 
only and provides that no alien, who has not declared his intention to become a 
naturalized citizen of the U. S. shall be employed by the State or any political 
subdivision thereof. 


Exclusion From Ballot {(1938) Code, Sec. 1936 (i) ).— Bars subversive politi- 
cal parties, their individuals and candidates from any place on the ballot for 
public office. Requires affidavit of all new parties and makes violation a pun- 
ishable offense. 

Incitement to Specific Acts Of Violence ((1915) Id., Sec. ii038).— Prohibits 
advising, inciting, or conspiring to commit the offense known as "night riding." 
Punishable by 3-15 years. 


Sedition ((1857-8) Id., Sec. 11026). — Any person uttering seditious words, 
spreading false news, writing or dispersing scurrilous libels against state or 
general government, disturbing or obstructing any lawful officer in executing 
liis office, or of instigating others to cabal or meet together to contrive, suggest, 
etc., or incite rebellious conspiracies, riots, or any manner of unlawful feuds or 
4ifferences, thereby to stir people up maliciously to contrive the ruin and de- 
struction of peace, safety and order of government, or knowingly concealing such 
pi'actices, is guilty of misdemeanor. Up to 1 year, $1,000, or both ; also bonds to 
keep the peace, and ineligibility to hold public office for 3 years. 


Exclusion From Ballot {(1941) Session Laics, June 30, p. 877, ch. 547). — 
Directed against the individual, rather than the party or organization. Provides 
that no person shall be permitted to have his name appear upon any official ballot 
^s a candidate for any office unless he file with the Secretary of State an 
-affidavit that, if elected, he will support and defend the Constitution of the U. S. 
and of Texas, and will resist any effort to subvert or destroy representative 
form of government. Specifically provides that no candidate or nominee of the 
Communist, Nazi, or Fascist party shall ever be allowed a place on the official 

Rciiulation of Teachcr.9 ( (19 ',1) Session Laivs, June 30, pp. 1107-8, ch. 568). — 
Faculty members of State-supported institutions subject to discharge for sub- 
versive beliefs or activities. 

Rcf/ulafion of Faculty of State Institutions ((1941) Session Laivs, July 23, 
p. 1355, ch. 617). — All teachers and instructors of tax-supported schools, colleges, 
■universities or other institutions of learning shall take oath of office and, subject 
to hearing, shall be discharged for subversive activity. 


Criminal Syndicalism ((1919) Rev. Stat. 1933, Sects. 1 03. 5 Jf-1-5).— It is un- 
lawful to advocate, suggest, justify, etc., in any manner, by word of mouth, 
printing, etc., the doctrine which advocates crime, violence, force, destruction 
of property, or other unlawful methods or acts, as means of accomplishing in- 
dustrial or political ends, changes or revolution. Penalty, 1-5 years, .$200-$1.000, 
or both. Similar provision for assembling for such unlawful purpose. Use 
of premises punishable as misdemeanor. 

Regulation of State Police Hif/htcay Patrol (Laivs 1945, ch. 118). — Persons 
•with subsevsive affiliations barred from State Highway Patrol appointments. 


Criminal Anarchy ( (1919) Put). Laics, 1933, Sects. 8.370).— Prohibits incitement 
through advocacy of assault upon or killing of public official, destruction of 
property, overthrow of state government by force or violence, or meeting with 
others to advocate violation or refusal to obey laws of state regarding preserva- 
tion of peace and protection of life and property. Penalty, up to 3 years, or 
$1,000. or both. 

Regulation of Teachers (Laics 1935, No. 88). — Loyalty oath statute. 

Teachers Engaging In Propaganda (Pub. Laics, 1933, Sect. 4236). — Subject to 


Consipracy To Commit Specific Acts Of Violence ((1877-78) Code 1936, Sect. 
jfS92). — Prohibits conspiracy for incitement of colored population to violence 
.against whites or vice versa. Penalty, 5-10 years. 

Sedition ((1948) Acts of Assembly No. 392, ch. 172). — It is a felony to ad- 
vocate any change, by force or violence, in the government of the state or any 
of its subdivisions, or of the U. S.— joining or assisting or otherwise 
contributing to any group or organization which, to the knowledge of the per- 
son, advocates such is also a felony. Act not to apply to advocating change in 
government by peaceful means. Penalty, $1,000-$5,000, 2-5 years, or both. 


Criminal Anarchy ((1941) Session Laws, Mar. 24, pp. 676-7, ch. 215).— This 
appears to be an amendment and reenactment of an earlier statute passed in 


1909. It is a felony to advocate in any manner the doctrine that organized 
government should be overthrown by force or violence, assassination of executive 
otlicials, or by any unlawful means, or justifying such, or to become a member 
or assemble with a group so advocating. Penalty, up to 10 years, $5,000, or both, 
and ineligible for state employment for 5 years. 

Criminal Si/iidicalistn Hl91<J) Rev. Stat. A7i)i., 19S2, Sects. i:563.1-ll).— 
Unique — Whoever, with intent that his act shall, or who has reason to believe 
that it may, injure, interfere with, etc., agriculture, lumbering, mining, manu- 
facturing, tran.'^portation, etc.. wherein persons are employed for wage shall wil- 
fully injure or destroy, or attempt or threaten to do so. any property, mechanism, 
apiiiiance, etc., is guilty of a felony — resembles sabotage laws. Includes anyone 
who, with intent to supplant, impair, etc., owner's management or control of any 
enterprise listed above, shall unlawfully take or retain, or threaten to do so, con- 
trol of any property or instrumentality used in such enterprise. It is a felony 
also to advocate, etc.. sucli doctrine or conduct in any manner, or to organize or 
become a member of assemblage advocating above. Penalty, up to $.'>,000, 10 
years, or both. 

Regulation of Teachers {Pierce's Code 1939, Sect, jp'31-1). — Loyalty oath 

Incitement To Specific Acts Of yi(jJ<nce (Pierce's Code 1939, Sect. 8750).-^ 
Inciting or encouraging a breach of p.^ace or disrespect, or disrespect for law or 
courts, or permitting premises to be used for anarchy are declared to be a gross 


Sedition and Criminal Siiridicalism ( {1919) Code Ann. 1931, Sect. 5912).— It is 
unlawful to speak, print, communicate, etc., in any manner any doctrine in sym- 
pathy with or in favor of ideals, institutions, or forms of government hostile, 
inimical, or antagonistic to those existing under constitution and laws of state 
or U. S., or in sympathy with or in favor of crime, violence or other unlawful 
methods of terrorism as means of accomplishing econiimic or political reform, or 
in sympathy with or in favor of the overthrow of organized society, the unlawful 
destruction of property, or violation of law. It is a mistlemeanor to uphold or 
justify organized insurrection of armed invasion. 

Rec/ulation of Teacliers (Code Ann. 19J,3. Sect. ^807) .—Loyalty oath statute. 

Incitement To Specific Acts of Violence ( {1849) Code Ann. 19^3, Sect. 5911).— 
Applies to justifying armed invasion. 


Exclusion From Ballot ( (WJ/l) Srssion Lan-s, May 13, pp. 145-6, eh. 105). — No 
party shall be recognized or qualitied to participate in any election if ;. filiated 
directly or indirectly with communist party of the U. S. or the third conununist 
international, nv any otlier foreign agenc.v. political party, etc., engaged in sub- 
versive activities. The Secretary of State, with advice of Attorney General, shall 
determine which parties are eligible. Provision for appeal to the courts. 

Criminal Anarchy {(1903) Stats. 1945, Sects. 347.14-18} .—It is a felony to 
advocate, justify, ( tc, in any manner the doctrine that organized government 
should be overthrown b.v force or violence, or by assassination of executive offi- 
cials of government, or any unlawful means — org-inizing or becoming a member 
of an organization, or voluntarily assembling with group advocating such doc- 
trine is also a felony. Editors, proprietors, etc., of publications are chargeable 
with matter contained in such publications. Similar to New York and North 
Carolina statutes in this respect. Penalty, o-lO years, up to $5,000 or both. 


Exclusion From Ballot {(19J,r) Sess'ion Laws. Feb. 1, pp. 11-12, ch. 9).— 
Excludes alien political parties. Similar to statutes in other states. 

Criminal Syndicalism ((1919) Comp. Stat. 1945, Atin. Art. 4, Sect. 9-401). — 
Prohibits inciting, advising, advocation, suggesting or encouraging crime as a 
means of coercion or for the accomplishment of any political or industrial reform, 
change or purpose in Wyoming or in any foreign state or country. Offense termed 
"incitement to crime" and made punishable up to 5 years. $5,000, or both. (Offend- 
ers also subject to peace bond and commitment for default of such recognizance. 


Appendix C — State Statutes (By Subject Matter) 

As a convenient reference, the state statutes, as classified in Appendix li, 
may be grouped and summarized as follows : 

lucitciHciit To Siiccific Acts of Violence. — 14 states, viz, Arkansas, Connecticut, 
Horida, Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, New Jersey, 
North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. Note, however, that 
the Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky, and Virginia statutes, instead of being 
classified as "Incitement, etc.", are termed "Conspiracy" (To Commit Specific- 
Acts of Violence). Also, the Maryland statute, a Civil War Measure, is now 
obsolete and hardly shovild be included. 

Incitement to violence might be termed a mild form of conspiracy. These 
statutes are narrower in scope than sedition, anarchy and syndicalism acts, 
though somewhat overlap them, as heretofore indicated. The Colorado statute 
very nearly approaches the classification of "Criminal Anarchy." 

Sedition. — 21 states, viz. Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, 
Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana (limited to State Guard),. 
Michigan, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Caro- 
lina, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. 

In this group have placed all broad statutes against radical utterances, except which are entitled anarchy or syndicalism statutes. The subject matter 
also overlaps those acts against "Incitement To Specific Acts Of Violence." 

Criminal Anarchy. — 12 states, viz, Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, 
Massachusetts. Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont, Wash- 
ington, and Wisconsin. 

For the most part this group derives from the New York Act of 1902. The 
Massachusetts and Vermont acts are narrower and might be classed under the 
heading of "Incitement To Specific Acts Of Violence." The Colorado statute 
is a combination of sedition and anarchy ; the Rhode Island statute, a combina- 
tion of criminal syndicalism and anarchy. 

CriDiiiKil Si/ndicdlisin. — IS states, viz. California, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Ken- 
tucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ore- 
gon, Rhode Island, South Dakota. Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. 

IJ .ret II si on From Ballot. — 14 states, viz. Arkansas, California, Delaware, Illi- 
nois, Indiana, Kansas, Oklahoma, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas,. 
Wisconsin, and Wyoming. 

The statutes assume variable forms, though all seek to accomplish the same 

Regulation of Schools, Teachers, Puhlic Officers, etc. — 26 states, viz, Arizona, 
Arkansas, California, Colorado. Florida, Georgia. Illinois. Indiana, Maryland 
(constitutional amendment). Massachusetts, Michigan. Montana, Nevada, North 
Dakota, New Jersey, N'ew York, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Caro- 
lina. South Dakota. Texas. Utah, Vermont, W^ashington, and West Virginia. 

These statutes are of recent vintage, all having been enacted during or since 
W'orld Wai' II. The most common among them are the so-called "Teachers' 
Loyalty Oath Statutes" which exist in 20 of these states. 


In additii)n to the foregoing, there are various other types of state statutes 
which are considered to be of vicarious interest, but not of sufficient importance 
to be reviewed individually. For the information of the Commission these are 
classified :is follows, i. e.. Statutes: 

Against Opposition To '\Vur. — 13 states, viz, Florida, Iowa, Louisiana, Minne- 
sota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Texas, West Virginia, Wisconsin. 

Against Red Flags and Other Insignia. — 3.3 states, viz, Alabama, Arizona, ' 
Ai-kansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware. Idaho, Illinois, Indiana^ 
Iowa, Kansas. Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan. Minnesota. INIontana, Ne- 
braska, New Jersey. New Mexico, New York, North Dakota. Ohio, Oklahoma, 
Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, Washing- 
ton. West Virginia, Wisconsin. 

Against Conspiracy. — 87 states, viz, all except Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, 
Illinois. Kansas, Kentucky, New Hampshire, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, Vermont. 

Against Incitement To Crime Generally. — 10 states, viz, Arizona, California, 
Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Washing- 
ton, Wyoming. Common law crime in certain other states. 


Against Unlawful AssemMy. — 43 states, viz, all except Arkansas, Indiana, 
Maryland, Mississippi, and Tennessee. (Common law crime in some of the other 
states, including Maryland. See Kaefer v. State, 143 Md. 151.) 

Special statutes are directed against the Ku Klux Klan and similar groups in 
New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Texas, and Washington. 

Nebraska has a special statute requiring meetings to be held in the English 
language, and New Hampshire has a special statute for licensing parades. 

Note. — There is included in virtually all criminal syndicalism statutes a pro- 
vision against assembly for such unlawful purposes. 

Subversive Organizations Registration Act. — 3 states, viz., California, Michi- 
gan, New York. 

Oath Required of — 

Legislators : Arkansas. 
Presidential Electors : Georgia. 
State Guard : Louisiana. 
Police Force : Pennsylvania. 


In connection with reports issued from time to time, the Committee 
on Un-American Activities is cognizant of the fact that supporters of 
'Communist-front organizations and even members of the Communist 
Party, become clisilhisioned and aware of the true nature of the move- 
ment. In fact it is an objective of the committee to hasten such dis- 
ilhisionment and reeducation. The ccmimittee endeavors in its files 
and reports to record such repudiation wherever possible, and wher- 
ever there seems to be convincing evidence of genuine sincerity. 

In other cases where the committee may have erred in reference to an 
individual or an organization, it desires to amend its records in order 
to avoid any injustice. 

With these purposes in view the committee has decided to append 
the follow^ing correspondence and testimony. 

ExECUTrvE Session 

United States House of Representatives, 

Committee on Un-American Activities, 
Washington, D. C, Wednesday, October 5, 1949. 

The committee met, pursuant to call, at 12 : 45 p. m., in room 226, Old House 
Office Building, Hon. John S. Wood (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives John S. Wood (chairman), 
Morgan M. Moulder, Richard M. Nixon, Francis Case, and Harold H. Velde. 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel; Louis J. Russell, 
senior investigator ; Donald T. Appell, investigator ; John W. Carrington, clerk ; 
Benjamin Mandel, director of research : and A. S. Poore, editor. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Cowherd, will you raise your right hand, please. You solemnly 
swear the evidence you will give this committee will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Cowherd. I do. 

Testimony of Yelverton Cowherd 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Cowherd, the committee has received a request from you to ap- 
pear before the committee for purposes stated in your communication, which 
I understand had reference to a report issued by this committee in June 1947 on 
Southern Conference for Human Welfare. Is that correct? 

Mr. Cowherd. That is correct ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Our study of this report reveals that on page 4, and in the next to 
the last paragraph, mention is made of you by name, and it reads as follows : 

"Yelverton Cowherd, signer of a resolution against the Dies committee In 
1939, who appeared before the La Follette committee in 1937 to defend the case 


of Joseph Gelders, was a member of the nominating committee at the first con- 
ference, according to its official proceedings." 
Is that the part of the report to which you take exception? 

Mr. CowHEUD. That is one part. Gentlemen, I had not anticipated a 
quicli call. I have a file on this at home, but didn't have a chance to get it. I 
have it all pretty well in my head. I believe that is the part J. referred to as 
a misstatement or misinference of fact. 

Mr. Wood. So far as we have been able to find, there is no other reference to 
you in this report. Do you recall any other? 

Mr. CowHEBD. Strangely, this print does not have the same location of para- 
graph as the copy I have. That paragraph, I believe, appeared at the top of a 
page, perhaps the next page, on my copy, and the part that was disturbing to me 
after I studied the whole report was that in the very beginning, in the part tell- 
ing how the Southern Conference was formulated, there were inferences that 
it seems to me supported a conclusion on the part of anybody uninformed that 
I am positively a Communist or was positively a Communist. 

Mr. Wood. Will you point out to the committee where and in what manner this 
report leaves such an inference, because certainly this committee does not want 
to do an injustice to anybody ; and I want you later to answer categorically 
whether the statements of fact related in that paragraph are true or not true, 

Mr. CowHEKD. I knew nothing about the report or the consideration of that 
matter until a university law professor wrote me a letter and asked permission 
to include my case in an article which he said he was preparing for the Harvard 
Law Review. Then I got a copy of the report, to see what it was all about, and 
studied it carefully. 

This report, in the first paragraph of the introduction says : "In the early 
history of the organization, some well-intentioned persons were misled into 
joining. Many of them have since severed their connections on learning its 
true character," without putting a footnote and saying I was one of those who 
had nothing to do with the conference and was never an official, as was done 
with regard to Henry Fowler, that he had withdrawn and stating the reasons, 
which reasons were exactly the same as my own. 

1 was never a member. I attended whenever the thing was announced. As to 
having served on the nominating committee, I simply don't recall. But that 
paragraph did not go on to state the fact that I, too, had no longer associated 
with the conference since 1942. When Paul Robeson appeared in Nashville I 
threw up my hands and have had nothing to do with it since. 

Mr. Wood. Did you make any public statement about it? 

Mr. CowHEKD. No. It had never reached that importance in my mind. 

Mr. Wood. I believe the reason the committee made a footnote about Dr. 
Graham was that he made a public statement. 

Mr. Cowherd. No. They made the footnote about Henry Fowler. They didn't 
do that about me, and they listed my name in the list of people where there was 
an inference they were Communists. 

Being listed under the caption "Communist manipulation," I am an originator 
of Communist manipulation to anybody reading this report ; they could not con- 
clude anything else ; and Dr. Graham and all the others will tell you I was the 
leader of the opposing faction, because I was area chairman of the Americaniza- 
tion committee of the American Legion at that time. 

With regard to the statement that I appeared before the La Follette committee 
in 1937 to defend the case of Joseph Gelders, I was particularly offended by that. 

Mr. Wood. Is it ti'ue or not? 

Mr. Cowherd. It is not true. I appeared before the committee, but not for 
that purpose. I appeared as chairman of the Americanization committee of the 
American Legion. The Senate Committee on Education and Labor was investi- 
gating the National Metal Trade Association, and it developed — I didn't know it 
then — that they were trying to tie up certain citizens in Birmingham with this 
organization they were investigating, and one of the individuals had an unlisted 
phone number and had been active with me in putting on Americanization com- 
mittee programs. 

Two FBI men came in my office one day and said they understood I had this 
individual's phone listing. He is now a General in the United States Army. 
I will mention his name if you want it, but I don't think that is necessary. I said : 
"Yes, I know him. and he has assisted me on my programs for the Americanization 

They said: "Do you have this telephone listing?" I pulled it out of my vest 
pocket and said: "Yes, that is true. What do you have in mind?" 


Being an attorney, I became cautious, and I said : "Gentlemen. I believe I know 
what you are after, and I have nothing to hide. If you will get the proper process, 
telling me what documents you want, they will not disappear ; I will produce 
them." I thought they were to be produced in court. Later I got a subpena 
duces tecum to appear before the La Follette committee and bring documents. 

In the course of that investigation, the name of Gelders was brought up, 
but I didn't app'^ar to represent Gelders. I didn't defend him or condemn him. 
I have known Jo > Gelders — heavens, he is about my age: I have known him 
practically all l.v life. His family is well thought of, but Joe has conducted 
himself in such a manner that he has been criticized. I know nothing about it, 
and tried to find out about him. I said: "I don't know if J()e Gelders is a 
Communist or not."' And I don't know to this day. I said: "However, I have 
tried to find out about Joe Gelders, and everyone says he is honest." 

There had been a beating of a man at that time — no, there had been a 
beating of Joe Gelders, and he was found in a ditch in bad condition and he 
was revived and brought back to health. This same man I had the number 
of, who is now a (ieneral in the Army — no, he is now in the National Guard — 
came into my oflice the morning Joe Gelders was flogged, and he said : "What 
are we going to do about this scoundrel Joe Gelders?" I said: "What do you 
mean by 'we"? I am not going to do anything." 

Ml-. Nixon. Who is Joe Gelders? 

Mr. CowHEKD. He was active in the formation of this conference and gave 
the impression, right or wrong, that he was acting directly for Mrs. Franklin 
D. Roosevelt. Whether he was or not, I don't know, but he certainly gave that 

Mr. Nixon. This report says that Joseph Gelders "was formerly secretary of 
the National Conmiittee for Defense of Political Prisoners, which has been 
cited as subversive by Attorney General Biddle." The Daily Worker of April 
6, 1938, reported that he protested against the ari-est of Communists in Chatta- 
nooga. And the Sunday Worker of fiepttM;il)er S. 104il repoited that he was 
leader of a lobby for the American Peace Mobilization which conducted a picket 
line about the White House and denounced President Koosevelt as a "war 

That is the record that the committee report lias reference to. 

Mr. Case. Of course the worse the record of Joseph Gelders may be, the 
greater the injustice would be of associating ]Mr. Gelders' name with Mr. 
Cowherd seven or eight lines after mention of Mr. Gelders' record, if Mr. 
Cowherd did not appear for Mr. Gelders. 

Mr. Cowherd. Tlie testimony will show I was under sultpena duces tecum 
and the documents I produced were specified in the subpena. 

Mr. Wood. We have a copy of the hearing. 

Mr. Cowherd. It was an accurate report. It was sent to me for any correc- 
tions, and I had none to make. 

The only time I read the Daily Worker was when I was told I was mentioned 
in the Daily Worker as representing the rubber workers, and I got a copy 
of the paper. I believe I wrote to the Daily Worker and got a copy, and as I 
remember, the reference to me was that the rubber workers might well have 
made a serious mistake in employing Yelverton Cowherd, the South's A-1 
"lied baiter." 

Here is my name between John P. Davis and Edward E. Strong and James 
W. Ford and Herman C. Nixon. 

Mr. Case. When was the first conference? 

Mr. Cowherd. As I remember, it was 1937. 

Mr. Case. When did you withdraw or abandon any interest in or affiliation 
with the Southern Conference for Human Welfare? 

Mr. Cowherd. I think it was after the conference in 1941 — no, it couldn't 
have been 1941 because I was in a hospital in 1941. It may have been 1942. 
I have lived in Washington since May 1942 and it was before I came to Wash- 
ington. It was after the Nashville conference. 

Mr. Nixon. In other words, you haven't had anything to do with the organiza- 
tion since May 1942? 

Mr. Cowherd. Mr. Nixon, I had no connection with it at all. I liave had no 
knowledge or information of it since then. 

Mr. Case. Did you serve as a member of the nominating committee at the 
first conference? 

INIr. Cowherd. Mr. Case, I don't deny it but don't admit it. I don't remember. 

Mr. Case. You attended meetings? 


Mr. CowHFRD. I attended meetinu's until May 1942, hut let me make this clear: 
I was a ('iti;':eii of Birmingham, practicing law in the tirm that had heen the 
law tirm of Hugo lilack. I came into the lirm with Crampton Harris and his 
stepson, George Brown. The United Stales Commissioner, tlie Honorable Louise 
O. Charleton, invited me personally to attend the conference. I was informed 
my esteemed friend, Hugo Black, tlien Supreme Court Justice Black, was to 
be presented the Southern Citizenship medal. All those things ticliled my pride 
and I was glad to go to it. 

When I got there I discovered those things working, and then I got heated 
about it and started working against them. The Honorable Louise O. Charleton 
was the first chairman, and Dr. (Jraham was the tirst permanent chairman, and 
with him I worked to keep those tilings out of the conference, and we finally 
got the resolution through to fight all forms of imperialism or dictatorship. 

^Iv. Case. (_"an you produce any records of tlie conference or newspaper reports 
of the meetings which show your activities in that regard? 

Mr. Cowherd. It was not publicized in the newspapers, and I was not men- 
tioned in the records because I was not an official, but just in attendance, but 
Dr. Graham would verify what I am saying. I was a leader of the rightists 
in rhe movement. 

Mr. CASE. I am reading from page IT of the report, where the conclusion is 
set forth : 

"The Southern Conference for Human Welfare is perhaps. the most deviously 
camoutiaged Conununist-front organization. W^hen put to tlie following acid 
test it reveals its true character: 

"1. It shows unswerving loyalty to the basic principles of Soviet foreign 

•'2. It has consistently refused to take sharp issue with the activities and 
policies of either the Communist Party, USA, or the Soviet Union. 

•'3. It has maintained in decisive posts persons who have the confidence of 
the Communist press. 

"4. It has displayed consistent anti-American bias and pro-Soviet bias, despite 
professions, in generalities, of love for America." 

In other w^ords, you want the committee to understand that your activities in 
the conference, to the extent you attended their sessions, were opposed to these 
characteristics here described? 

Mr. Cowherd. D.finitel.v, because I had fought them all the way through. 

Mr. Wood. Are you sufficiently familiar with the later activities of the Southern 
Conference for Human Welfare to give an opinion as to whether it did finally 
come to the point wliere it represented these criticisms? 

Mr. Cowherd. INIr. Wood, I would be stating a falsehood if I stated that, but 
it was going in that direction when I left it; that is why I left it. I would say 
the first, while it may be true now, certainly was not true at the time I left the 
Southern Conference, because the Chattanooga confei'ence before that is the 
one where we had the knock-down-drag-out fight on the resolution that Dr. 
Graham put across to fight all forms of imperialism or dictatorship. They 
opposed that resolution and wanted it to read to fight fascism only. 

I am probably too old to be hurt much by what happens, but my youngest 
boy is 17 years (jld; he will be 18 in January. I was in the Navy and I know 
from my experience how his chances of promotion would be hurt if this name 
Yelverton Cowherd is not cleared up. He has the same name. That is a peculiar 
name. It is easy to peg and not easily forgotten, and it has not been smeared 
for 212 years. It appears in the records of Virginia since 17o7. I just hate to 
pass that kind of name on to Jimior through any laxity on my part to see that 
this is cleared up in as dignified a manner as it appears. 

I have to brag. I don't know any way out of it. I know I am pure on this 
kind of charge. I have spent my life fighting this kind of thing I have been 
charged with espousing. 

Mr. Case. Mr. Chairman, it seems to me that this gentleman .should have an 
opportunity, if he so desires, to file anything in the nature of a statement by 
Dr. Graham or anybody else to attest to wh/it he is saying. 

Mr. Wood. I was about to suggest to the committee that we permit Mr. Cowherd 
to file any summary he desires. 

Mr. Case. On the statement that he has made here as to the facts, I can see 
tliat if I had left the Southern Conference for Human Welfare for the reasons 
he said he left it, he wouldn't want his name to be used and identified as it is 
identified here, in connection with an organization that is labeled as this organi- 
zation is labeled in this report. 

Mr. Nixon. What you mean is that if Dr. Graham, for example, could give a 
letter or statement to Mr. Cowherd that he, in turn, could give the committee. 


to the effect that what Mr. Cowherd has stated was according to his memory too^ 
that we would have some corroboration? 

Mr. Case. I have never seen this man before today, but he has been very posi- 
tive in his statements, and I think he sliould have the opportunity to present some 
corroborating material. 

Mr. Wood. Without objection on the part of any member of the committee, I 
will say to you that the committee will be glad to see such information of that 
nature as you can furnish it. I would like to ask you one further question 
categorically. Did you sign a resolution against the Dies committee in 1939? 

Mr. Cowherd. As I recall — I don't recall dates, of course — I am glad you asked 
the question. The only thing in my life I have ever joined which has later 
become known to me to be classified as a Communist-front organization was the 
National Lawyers' Guild. I did join that. They circulated such a resolution. 
A number of lawyers' names were on it, among whom was the one man I regarded 
as sufficient proof of authenticity and character for me to put my name, and that 
was Charlie Fahey. I put my name on it, on a resolution, and I won't say this 
was not the same resolution. I signed some resolution saying, in effect, that 
the methods of the Dies committee in pul)lishing things about citizens without 
affording those citizens ample time to discredit them — just such a thing as is 
involved here — was a bad practice or un-American. I was still in Alabama at 
that time. Later I noticed in the newspapers that Charlie Fahey had dropped 
out of the National Lawyers' Guild, and I dropped out. 

Mr. Wood. You don't maintain membership in that organization now? 

Mr. Cowherd. No, sir. I knew CharUe Fahey in Alabama. When he withdrew 
I did too, immediately. 

Mr. Nixon. You withdrew because of the basic reason that it was Communist- 
infiltrated ; is that it? 

Mr. Cowherd. I didn't have any specific reason. When I saw Charlie Fahey's 
reason, he was rather politic about it but I could see he suspected it was under 
Communist domination, he may even have said it was, and when I saw that I 

Mr. Case. How did you withdraw? 

Mr. Cowherd. I simply did not pay my next year's dues. 

Mr. Case. You definitely did withdraw? 

Mr. Cowherd. Yes. 

Mr. Case. When was that? 

Mr. Cowherd. Back in 1940 sometime. 

Mr. Case. There isn't a member of this committee I know of Avho wants to 
penalize the sincere efforts of anybody to see that underprivileged people, or peo- 
ple unable to sjk -i!: for themselves, have an adequate voice to right any injus- 
tice that may be carried on against them ; and for myself I feel those efforts at 
some time could be attended with some risks. A person's motives can some- 
times be misinterpreted. I think the tactics of the whole Communist organiza- 
tion is to cash in on sympathy that people may have for people who are under- 
privileged. That is what makes it a risk sometimes, because they attempt to 
capitalize on that. 

For that very reason, I, personally, would want the committee's conduct to 
be circumspect and not penalize people who seek to right injustices of various 
sorts. I wouldn't want the committee to be guilty of doing that. At the same 
time, we have to try to carry out the functions of this committee, and that is 
to expose the activities of Communist-front organizations, or the Communist 
Party itself, to utilize people and organizations. It is wholly a question of 
facts. I think your statement here has been very straightforward. You got 
short notice and came up here without reference to material or books, and your 
statement has been very direct and straightforward, and while 1 still have an 
open mind on the thing, I did think you should have this opportunity, and I ap- 
preciate what the chairman has said, that opportunity would be given you to 
present supplementary material. 

Mr. Cowherd. I only know of one thing, and that would be a statement by 
Dr. Frank Graham. 

Mr. Case. You referred to having served on the American Legion commit- 
tee for Americanization. 

Mr. Cowherd. That is right. 

Mr. Case. And it was in connection with that you really went before the 
La Follette committee? 

Mv. Cowherd. That is right. In other words, there was an unlisted phone 
in the ofl^ice of the United States Steel subsidiary in Birmingham. In that 


office, right next door to the chief of police of the Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad 
Co., was a phone the number of which, we will say, was Main 1313. That is not 
the number. It had a 4 and a 6 in it. They had not been able to prove, ap- 
parently, that that phone was actually in those oflices, but by proving I had 
the listing of this individual who was in that office, and that was the phone over 
which I called him, they used that to show the Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad 
Co. was helping the National Metal Trades Association at that time. That was 
the missing link. 

Mr. Case. How did you become a member of the Americanization committee 
of the American Legion? 

Mr. Cowherd. I was very active in the American Legion. In fact, I was 

Mr. Case. State commander? 

Mr. Cowherd. No, Birmingham commander. At that time George Grant, my 
Congressman, was State commander. Congressman Grant knows me intimately. 
Incidentally, he told me he was supposed to be in attendance at the conference 
too. Brooks Hays was there. 

Mr. Case. Did George Grant have anything to do with your being chairman 
of the Americanization committee? 

• Mr. Cowherd. No. There was a county council, and they were trying to co- 
ordinate the work of the council under one head, and I was selected by this 
council to be area chairman to coordinate the work of the 14 posts. 

Mr. Case. Did George Grant know anything about your activities in that con- 

Mr. Cowherd. I am sure lie will recall it, because he was active 200 miles 
farther down the State. Albert Rains is my intimate friend ; George Grant ; Bob 
Jones ; Brooks Hays ; Lister Hill ; John Sparkman ; we are all friends. 

Mr. Case. Are those men familiar with the fact that you were trying to pre- 
vent the southern conference from going Communist? 

Mr. Cowherd. Brooks Hays would. He was in attendance. George Grant did 
not attend. Dr. Graham would be. They are the only Members of Congress 
I know at this time who would know about it. 

^Ir. IMoulder. Judging from your background and from the testimony you 
have given here, it appears to me you certainly are justified in appearing before 
the committee to vindicate and redeem your name in the report you referred to. 
May I suggest that in the event nothing further appears to refute this state- 
ment, the committee, if the facts so justify, should make a finding and order of 
record to redeem and vindicate your name and to remove this reference you have 
referred to. 

Mr. Cowherd. That is the most I could hope for, and I tliought this was an 
ethereal dream. I didn't think tlie committee would go that far. 

Mr. Wood. The furthest thing from the mind of this committee is to injure 
the reputation of anyone. 

Mr. Nixox. I would suggest it might be issued as an addendum to the report, 
such as the note concerning Mr. Fowler, stating that upon hearing testimony 
by Mr. Cowherd the following facts were brought out and are presented to com- 
plete the record. In that connection, it seems to me tlie points that should be 
developed in any corroboi-ative statements by Mr. Hays or Senator Graham would 
be, first, that you were in the anti-Communist bloc in the Southern Conference 
for Human Welfare and that you left that organization in 1942. Second, I think 
it would be well to mention you were a member of the National Lawyers' Guild 
and left at the time the split occurred between Communists and anti-Communists. 

I mention those two facts because tliose are additional facts which definitely 
would tend to establish an anti-Communist attitude. 

Mr. Case. And possibly George Grant or somebody familiar with your Ameri- 
can Legion activities may add a statement about your activities in connection 
with the Americanization committee of the American Legion. 

Mr. Cowherd. As a matter of fact, Mr. Chaillaux, the national director, was 
the one responsible for my appointment. 

Mr. Case. And he made the strongest speech against communism I have ever 

Mr. Wood. Get us that information at your earliest convenience, and the com- 
mittee then will take such action as the facts seem to warrant. 

We are very grateful to you for coming here. 

Mr. Cowherd. I am grateful to you gentlemen, as this has had me disturbed. 

(Thereupon, at 1 : 10 p. m. on Wednesday, October 5, 1949, the hearing was 



The following: correspondence and accompanying material is self' 
explanatory and will clarify the status of various persons and organi 
zations which have been mentioned in certain reports of the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities. 

Easteen Division, Czechosi,ovak National Council of Amekica, 

June 30, 1949. 
Hon. Isidore Dollingee, 

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Sir: This is to confirm the telephone conversation of Mr. Valucliek with 
yon on Jnne 28th, concerning the statement which appeared in the New Yorli 
Times on June 26tli about the American Slav Congress, issued by the Un-American 
■Committee of the House. 

The letter which we intend to send to the New York Times, I believe, explains 
the whole matter and proves without fear of contradiction that the Eastern 
Division of the Czechoslovak National Council, located in New York City, nor 
their officers, could be connected in any way with either the American Slav 
■Congress, or with any un-American activities. 

Thus I would appreciate it very much if you would take this matter up with 
the Un-American Committee, so that we could get some satisfaction and that 
our records, which were smeared unjustly, could be cleared. 

If it is necessary, we are willing to appear either liefore the Committee, its 
representatives, or any member of the Department of Justice, because we feel 
there could be and should be no doubt about our love of democracy and the 
United States. 

Anything you can do in this matter, would be highly appreciated. 

Very truly yours, 

John Drahos, 

President, Eastern Division of the Czechoslovak National Council, 

811 Crotona Park N., Bronx 60, N. Y. 

To the Editor of the New York Times : 

According to the New York Times of June 26, 1949, the Report of the House 
Un-American Activities Committee on the American Slav C/ongress listed among 
the organizations "actively associated with the American Slav Congress," an 
organization named as "The Czechoslovak National Council of America, New 
York City." 

There is no organization listed under this name in New York City. However, 
there exists in New York City an organization named the Eastern Division of 
the Czechoslovak National Council in U. S. A. and in order to set the record 
straight its Executive Committee declares: 

1. The Eastern Division of the Czechoslovak National Council in U. S. A. 
even durine the highest wartime collaV)oration between the Soviet Union and 
the United States of America did not directly or indirectly associate itself and 
■cooperate with the American Slav Congress. It was neither represented in the 
National Committee nor in the local New York group of the American Slav 

€ongress. -r.. . . „ ^i 

2. After the liberation of Czechoslovakia in 194n, the Eastern Division of the 
Czechoslovak National Council went into an inactive status pending the reorgan- 
ization of its parental organization, the Czechoslovak National Council in USA 
at Chicago. Again during this period no contat t or association of any kind 
was made or even remotely attempted wth the American Slav Congress. 

3 After tlie Communist coup d'etat in Czechoslovalda, the decision was made 
■by the participatinu' organizations to reactivate the Eastern Division of the 
Czechoslovak Nati«mal Council in the I'SA with neither the Communist nor 
P'ascist organization Ix^ing allowed to bee me members of the new organization. 

The reestablished Eastern Division of the Czechoslovak National Council 
in USA then held a public meeting on March 10, 1949, commemorating the 99th 
birthday anniversary of Thomas G. Masaryk, the first President of Czechoslo- 
vakia "The princijial speakers were Hon. John W. Gibson, assistant secretary of 
Labor, Col. John Bennett, deputy Mayor of New York City, and Dr. Petr Zenkl. 
■chairman of the Council for Free Czechoslovakia, an anti-Communist organiza- 
tion of the Czechoslovak democratic refugees. All speakers, as well as the repre- 


sentatives of the Council, denounced communism and Communist policies, botii 
here and abroad. More than 2,000 persons participated. (See New York Times, 
March 11, 1949.) 

4. Ou May Tth, 1949, the Eastern Division of the Czechoslovak National 
Council in the USA, called a convention of democratic American Czechoslovak 
organizations in the East. Again Communist and Fascist groups were excluded. 
The convention officially approved the re-activation of the Council, invited all 
democratic American Czechoslovak organizations in the East to join the Council 
and participate in its anti-Communist activities. It also declared unanimously 
its moral Support, in accordance with existing U. S. laws, of the Council of 
Free Czechoslovakia, fighting for the liberation of Czechoslovakia from Com- 
munist dictatorship. It approved plans for extended help to the democratic 
Czech and Slovak refugees from Communist terror. The convention passed also 
a resolution addressed to U. S. President, Harry S. Truman, which read in part: 

"At this convention we wish to convey to you our assurances that Americans 
of Czechoslovak origin are deeply loyal to democratic ideals of the United States 
of America and sincerely devoted to this, our country. The loss of democracy 
in Czechoslovakia, the country of our forbears, has brought to us a new real- 
ization of the liberties enjoyed in all equality and a deeper sense of obligation 
to <mr nation for all Freedoms so justly guaranteed by our Constitution. 

"We wish further to thank you for your leadership in the alleviation of suffer- 
ing throughout the world, and for your firm determination to safeguard world 
peace as well as your staunch efforts against totalitarian aggression. 

"Please accept our assurances that Americans of Czechoslovak origin will 
always be among the to rise to the defense of American democracy against 
any enemy, internal or external." 

This resolution was duly noted by the White House, and by the State Depart- 
ment, as confirmed by a special letter of the latter to the Executive Secretary 
of the Council. 

5. Ever since the public announcement of the re-activation of the Eastern 
Division of the Czechoslovak National Council, the organization and its repre- 
sentatives have been a target of violent and slanderous attacks by the American 
Communist press. Some of its leaders were even attacked by the Czechoslovak 
Comnumist radio in its shortwave broadcasts directed to this country. All 
this is a matter of public record and anyone interested so deeply in the subversive 
activities in this country as the House Committee should be, could not possibly 
overlook these facts. 

6. The House Committee on Un-American Activities obviously did not even 
bother to check up on its information, especially its source, because during the 
investigation of the American Slav Congress activities not one of the Committee's 
investigators or members cared to approach the representatives of the Eastern 
Division of the Czechoslovak National Council in USA to check up the veracity 
and objectivity of given information. 

7. The fact that the same Committee Report (as quoted by the New York 
Times) lists among tlie so-called "loyal groups" one organization, named the 
Slovak League of America, supports the foregoing impressions about the Com- 
mittee's neglect to check up the reliability in its own material. The Slovak 
League of America was in this country during the last war a fanatical de- 
fender and spokesman of the Nazi Slovak puppet state and ardent proponent 
of its Fascist ideology. ITiis is also a matter of public record. And the same 
Slovak League of America is now conducting a violent campaign of hate against 
the Czechoslovak democratic liberation movement and its leaders, united in the 
Council of Free Czechoslovakia. Thus this so-called "loyal" organization is 
attempting to create dangerous dissensions and splits among tlie Americans of 
Slovak origin, preventing the formation of an effective and united anti-Com- 
munist front among all Czechoslovaks abroad. Since the Council of Free 
Czechoslovakia was .sanctioned l)y the U. S. authorities, this "Slovak League of 
America" is working against the present American foreign policy and against 
the best interests of this country. It is no coincidence that among its leaders 
one will find notorious rabble rou-sers and demagogues. One of them was even 
convicted to Sing Sing prison for five years for the land frauds which he helped 
to organize among the Slovak immigrants under the guise of Slovak chauvinism. 

Finally, the fact that among the so-called "loyal" organizations, mostly Cath- 
olic groups ai'e listed by the Committee, giving certainly the impression of bias 
and partiality. 


It is to be regretted that the House Committee on Un-American Activities, 
by such poorly prepared, organized, and documented report is once more defeating 
its own commendalile purpose, and giving aid and comfort to the Communists 
and their fellovp-travelers. 

The Eastern Division of the Czechoslovak National Council in the USA will 
continue in its anti-Communist and democratic efforts among the Americans of 
the Czech and Slovak origin in the East undeterred by the Committee's unfair, 
unjust and irresponsible accusations of loyal Americans. 

Congress of the United States, 

House ov Uepresextatives, 
Washington, D. C, July 8, 19 '{9. 
Hon. John S. Wood, 

Chairman, Committee on Vn-American Activities, 
House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. AYood : Enclosed is a copy of the letter I received from the Eastern 
Division of the Czechoslovak National Council, and a copy of their letter to the 
New York Times. 

They are requesting that they be given tlie opportunity to appear before 
your committee in order that they may clear their record and show that their 
being placed on the list of those actively associated with the American Slav 
Congress, was an error which should be corrected. 

Your courtesy in giving this request your favorable consideration, would be 
appreciated. Please let me know what action you decide to take. 
Thanking you for your attention, I am 
Sincerely youi's, 

Isidore Dollinger, M. C. 

JU1.T 12, 1949. 
Honorable Isidore Dolungeir, 

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Colleague : I have received your letter of July 8, 1949, enclosing a com- 
plaint from the Eastern Division of the Czechoslovak National Council of Amer- 
ica alleging that an error was made in listing this organization in our report on 
the American Slav Congress and associated organizations. 

The Committee's report, on page 5, simply reprints the statement made during 
the proceedings of the second All-Slavonic meeting held in Moscow in 1942 that 
greetings were received from the Czechoslovak National Council of America. 
The report, on page 5, mentions the fact that the proceedings of the second All- 
Slavonic meeting were published in pamphlet form in English by the Foreign 
Languages Publishing House in Moscow in 1942. 

Page 17 of the Committee report states, under the heading "Second American 
Slav Congress," that "credentials submitted to the conference showed the fol- 
lowing organizations as represented" : Tlie name of the Czechoslovak National 
Council appears as one of the organizations represented. The statement is based 
on the fact that the published proceedings of the Second American Slav Congress, 
held at Carnegie Music Hall in Pittsburgh on September 23 and 24, 1944, states 
that greetings were submitted by the Czechoslovak National Council. 

Between pages 24 and 25 of the report, a photograph appears which was taken 
from the Souvenir Joui'nal, Rally to Win the Peace, Third American Slav Con- 
gress, held in New York on September 20. 21, and 22, 1946. It should be noted 
that the name of Joseph Martinek, Executive Secretary, Czechoslovak National 
Council, appears in the descriptive data applying to the photograph mentioned. 

The statements made in the Committee's report are all based on documents 
issued by the American Slav Congress or one of its aflSliates. It must be realized 
that there ai'e many organizations among the foreign-language groups which 
have similar names. In fact, the Communists sometimes adopt such names for the 
purpose of misleading the public. 

In this connection, I should like to draw your attention to the footnote appear- 
ing at the bottom of page 17 of the American Slav Congress report which 
indicates how names of organizations are sometimes confused. The footnote 
points out that a previous publication of the Committee referred to the Polish- 
American Labor Council as a Communist organization. However, the name 
of the subversive organization should have been the American-Polish Labor 


Council. It is set forth in the footnote that this error was caused by a mistake 
in translation. 

I am today communicating with tlie Eastern Division of the Czechoslovak 
National Council to advise the oflScers of the organization that the Committee 
will be glad to correct any erroneous impressions which might have been created 
by its report on the American Slav Congress. 

A copy of the Committee's report on the American Slav Congress is trans- 
mitted herewith. 

Sincerely yours, 

John S. Wood, Chairman. 


JUI.Y 12, 1949. 
Mr. John Drahos, 

President, Eastern Division, Csechoslovak National Conncil, 
811 Crotona Park, Bronx GO, New York. 

Dear Mr. Drahos : The Honorable Isidore Dollinger has referred to the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities the letter which he received from you and a 
copy of your letter to the New York Times with respect to the inclusion of the 
Czechoslovak National Council of America in the Committee's report on the 
American Slav Congress and associated organizations. 

The Committee's report, on page 5, simply reprints the statement made during 
the proceedings of the second All-Slavonic meeting held in Moscow^ in 1942 that 
greetings were received from the Czechoslovak National Council of America. The 
report, on page 5, mentions the fact that the proceedings of the second All- 
Slavonic meeting were published in pamphlet form in English by the Foreign 
Languages Publishing House in Moscow in 1942. 

Page 17 of the Committee report states, under the heading "Second American 
Slav Congress," that "credentials submitted to the conference showed the follow- 
ing organizations as represented : "The name of the Czechoslovak National Coun- 
cil appears as one of the organizations represented." The statement is based on 
the fact that the published proceedings of the Second American Slav Congress, 
held at Carnegie Music Hall in Pittsburgh on September 23 and 24, 1944, states 
that greetings were submitted by the Czechoslovak National Council. 

Between pages 24 and 2.j of the report, a photograph appears which was taken 
from the Souvenir Journal, Rally to Win the Peace, Third American Slav Con- 
gress, held in New York on SeptWuber 20, 21, and 22, 1946. It should be noted 
that the name of Joseph Martinek, executive secretary, Czechoslovak National 
Council, appears in the descriptive data applying to the photograph mentioned. 

If the information set forth in the Committee's report does not conform with 
the facts, the Committee will be glad to receive from you a statement which will 
be made a part of the Committee's file on the American Slav Congress and asso- 
ciated organizations. 

Very truly yours, 

John S. Wood, Chairman. 

Congress of the United States, 

House of Representatives, 
Washington, D. C, July 21, 1949. 
Mr. Charles M. Prchal, 

President, Czechoslovak National Conncil of America, 
2S45 South Kedzie Avenue, Chicago 23, Illinois. 
Dear Me. Prchal : Receipt is acknowledged of your letter of July 18, 1949, with 
respect to the inclusion of the Czechoslovak National Council of America in the 
report of the Committee on Un-American Activities on the American Slav Con- 
gress and associated organizations. 

The Committee's report, on page .5, simply reprints the statement made during 
the proceedings of the second All-Slavonic meeting held in Moscow in 1942 that 
greetings were received from the Czechoslovak National Council of America. 
The report, on page 5, mentions the fact that the proceedings of the second All- 
Slavonic meeting were published in pamphlet form in English by the Foreign 
Languages Publishing House in INIoscow in 1942. 

Page 17 of the Committee report states, under the heading "Second American 
Slav Congress," that "credentials submitted to the conference showed the follow- 
ing organizations as represented :" The name of the Czechoslovak National 
Council appears as one of the organizations represented. The statement is based 


on the fact that the published proceedings of the Second American Slav Congress, 
held at Cai-negie Music Hall in Pittsburgh on September 28 and 24, 1944, states 
that greetings were submitted by the Czechoslovalv National Council. 

Between pages 24 and 25 of the report, a photograph appears which was talven 
from the Souvenir Journal, Rally to Win the Peace, Third American Slav Con- 
gress, held in New York on September 20, 21, and 22, 194(i. It should be noted 
that the name of Joseph Martinek, executive secretary, Czechoslovak National 
Council, appears in the descriptive data applying to the photograph mentioned. 

The Committee, in its report, recognized that certain persons and organiza- 
tions formerly connected with the American Slav Congress may have withdrawn 
without such action having been brought to the attention of the Committee. The 
Committee on Un-American Activities is happy to learn that the Czechoslovak 
National Council of America, including its Eastern Division, is no longer af- 
filiated with the American Slav Congress and, in fact, is actually denouncing it 
and its policy among the Czechoslovak people within the United States. 

The material which you enclosed with your letter of July 18 will be made a 
part of the Committee's file on the American Slav Congress and associated 

Sincerely yours, 

John S. Wood. Chnlrnuin. 

Telephone Bishop 7-5397 

Officers : John A. Cervenka, Honorary President ; Charles M. Prchal, President ; John VoUer, 
Vice President ; Martha Kralik, Vice President ; Ladislav Janik, Secretary : Frank Zak^ 
Treasurer ; Blanche J. Cihak, Executive Secretary 

Czechoslovak National Council of Amkkica 

234 5 south KEDZIE AVENUE 

Chicago 23, 111. 

July ISth, 1940. 
The Committee on Un-Amekican Activities, 
House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. 
Gentlemen : According to your report on the American Slav Congress, as 
quoted by the New York Times, on June 26, 1949, the "Czechoslovak National 
Council of America, New York City," was included among organizations "ac- 
tively associated with the American Slav Congress." 

This informati' u is untrue, incorrect, unjust, and misleading. 

1. There is no organization listed as the "Czechoslovak National Council of 
America, New I'ork." The headquartex's of our organization is, and has been 
for decades, located in Chicago, Illinois. Our New York branch is known as 
the Eastern Division of the Czechoslovak National Council of America." 

2. The Czechoslovak National Council of America is not and never has been 
Communistic or sympathetic to Communism. Paragraph 5, Article III of its 
constitution as adopted in 1942 and ratified unanimously by all subsequent con- 
ventions, explicitly states : 

"This organization will not be sub.iected to any foreign control, nor will engage 
in any military activity or efforts to organize, control, or overthrow the govern- 
ment by the use of force, violence, or military means." 

3. The Czechoslovak National Council of America, with headquarters in Chi- 
cago, refused to participate in the original Slavic Committees, wliich were spon- 
sored by the Communists and their sympathizers in the summer of 1941. We 
joined the American Slav Congress only when, on the motion of our representa- 
tives, this organization obtained a letter of clarification from our Department 
of State. We have been known as an outstanding non-Communist group in the 
American Slav Congress and our representatives strictly adhered to the advice 
given by the Department of State in the mentioned letter of clarification. 

4. The Czechoslovak National Council of America cooperated with the Ameri- 
can Slav Congress during the war, in order to secure and to fafilitate a steady 
and uninterrupted flow of production in tlie heavy war industries, which were 
employing al)OUt 50 percent of tlie workers of Slavic origin, and in order tfu 
support the war efforts of our government in the struggle against Nazism. 

After the war when the American Slav Congress began to follow the changed 
Communist party line and to support new totalitarianism, the Czechoslovak 
National Council terminated its relations with the American Slav Congi-ess. 


Prof. J. J. Zinrlial, former president of the Czechoslovak National Council of 
America, and until the last convention of the American Slav Congress vice presi- 
dent of the A. S. C, ceased to be president of our organization after our con- 
vention, held in 1945, and has not l)een active among us since that time. Even 
he repudiated the American Slav Congress by a public statement, in 1948, when 
that organization became active in support of Henry A. Wallace. 

r>. Since the Communist overthrow of the democratic government of Czechoslo- 
vakia, the Czechoslovak National Council f)f America became rhe central organ- 
ization of Americans of Czechoslovak descent, who are opposed to communism 
,)nd strive t" liberate their old couiitry from the new yoke of totalitarianism. 
Our conventions, held in May and in December 1948, in Chicago, became the 
rallying points of opposition to communism and all totalitarian policies, uphold- 
ing the democratic principles and the Constitution of our country, and demanding 
restitution of democracy in Czechoslovakia. Enclosed please find the copies of 
our English bulletin the "American Czechoslovak Flashes" stating our policies. 

6. The Czechoslovak National Council of America is not only not associated 
with the American Slav Congress, but is actively opposing its policies in our pub- 
lications "The American Czechoslovak Flashes." the Americke Hlasy (The 
American Voices) and in the "Press Service of the Czechoslovak National Council 
of America" and denouncing the support, given by the American Slav Congress to 
the totalitarian regimes in the Slavic countries. In its turn we were attacked in 
the publications supporting the American Slav Congress, and our leading mem- 
bers were included by them in the list of "ex-kings and traitors" to the so-called 
"Peoples Democracy." 

7. What we state about our organization applies fully to the Eastern Division 
of the Czechoslovak National Council in New York. 

In view of these easily verified facts, it is evident that your committee obtained 
its information about our organization from a biased and unfair source which 
deserves to be checked and investigated as it created harm trying to split the 
anti-Communist front among the Americans of Czechoslovak origin. 

We ask you respectfidly to correct the wrong impression of our organization 
created by your report on the American Slav Congress. 
Resi>ectful!y yours, 

Czechoslovak National Couxcil of America, 
(S) Charles M. Prchal 

Charles M. Prchal, Pres. 
(S) Lad. .Tanik 

Lad. .Tamk, Secrcturn. 

[Kelease No. 1, March 1949] 


Published by tlie Czechoslovak National Council of America, 234.5 S. Kedzie 

Avenue, Cliicago 23, Illinois 

Why the New American Czechoslovak Flashes 

There were .several reasons for the decision made by the convention of the 
Czechoslovak National Council of America to renew the publication of tlie 
American Czechoslovak Flashes which was suspended in October 1947. 

First, it was recognized that since two-thirds of the Americans of Czechoslovak 
origin are composed now of the native-born citizens (of 1,004,800 persons who 
have declared Czech or Slovak language as their mother tongue in the census 
of 1940 only 331,2(X> were foreign born). There is need for a publication in, devoted to their interests. This group is more unified than the older 
groups. Its members have a common American backgrotnid. To them not 
Czech or Slovak, but English is the principal means of expression. Among them 
the differences dividing their fathers in the past and emanating from the Old 
World background, are reduced to a minimum. This group was fairly repre- 
sented at the convention of the Council last December, and its representatives 
expressed the wish to participate more actively in the leadei'ship of the nation- 
ality group to which they belong. They believe that the days have passed when 
mostly the voices of immigrants spoke for Americans of Czechoslovakian origin. 


The second reason for renewal of this bulletin is the recent political upheaval 
in Czechoslovakia. The community of democratic ideologies between Czechoslo- 
vakia and the United States of America ceased to exist when the Communist& 
took over the government of Czechoslovak Republic and established their dictator- 
ship. The Czeclioslovakian democracy, so intimately related to our own wa& 
destroyed in February 1948. Because the vast majority of Americans of Czecho- 
slovak origin remain true to the ideals and principles of democracy and abhor 
totalitarian i-egimes everywhere, it is necessary to take a firm stand against 
totalitarianism in Czechoslovakia and to protect ourselves against the infiltration 
of its ideology. The Communist regime of Czechoslovakia is trying to gain favor 
among the Americans of Czechoslovakian descent. This effort is by no means 
limited to the immigrants. A flood of literature in English as well as in Czech 
and Slovak is pouring from Prague and Bratislava to our American societies and 
even into American public libraries under the pretext of exchange of cultural 
information. Counteracting this propaganda is the duty of all freedom and 
democracy loving Americans. 

It also was the consensus of the opinion at the convention that an intensified 
effort should be made to spread the knowledge of the history, the languages and 
the cultural heritage of the Czechoslovakian people who survived the persecution 
of the Hapsburgs and of Hitler's Nazis, and who will succeed in regaining their 
independence and will again play an important part in the destinies of Europe 
and the world. This cultural endeavor must be carried out by our own means as 
no real help can be expected from Prague and Bratislava. The Communist cul- 
ture is unacceptable to Americans. The dLssemination of cultural information 
must not become a wedge of propaganda inimical to the principles and ideals of 
American and' Czechoslovakian democracy. 

Second to None in Defense or Teue Democracy 

At the National Convention of Czech and Slovak Societies and Organizations 
which was held in Chicago on December 4-5, 1948. under the sponsorship of the 
Czechoslovak National Council of America the following appeal was issued and 
signed by the native-born delegates : 

^'To Native-Born Americans of Czechoslovak Parentage: 

"Brothers and Sisters : During the two world conflicts we enjoyed almost com- 
plete coincidence of the ideologies as well as community of national interests 
between the United States of America and Czechoslovakia. 

"These democracies, led by our great Presidents Woodrow Wilson and F. D. 
Roosevelt, and Czechoslovakian presidents Masaryk and Benes heartily cooper- 
ated in the struggles against the powers of aggression and in the defense of 
their liberties. 

"This community of ideologies and interests came to an unhappy end when 
the Communists effected their Coup d'Etat in Prague in February 1948 and 
destroyed the Czechoslovakian democracy by brute force. 

"The establishment of a totalitarian regime in the country of our ancestors, 
a regime to which we as true democrats are unalterably opposed, casts its 
shadow even among our nationality group in the United States of America. 

"We deem it, therefore, our duty to proclaim solemnly and strongly that we 
detest the rule of brute force and that we oppose any attempt to spread the 
poison of totalitarian ideology among ourselves. 

"In order to unify our opposition to dictatorship we call upon all native-born 
Americans of Czech and Slovak parentage to give full support to efforts of the 
Czechoslovak National Council of America ( Ceckosloven.ska narodui rada v 
Americo) 2345 S. Kedzie Avenue, Chicago 23, 111., in its endeavor to maintain 
true democracy among our people. 

"Brothers and Sisters: Of the Americans of Czechoslovakian ancestry fully 
two-thirds belong to us, native citizens. It is high time for iis to t^aise our voices 
in order to protect our voices in order to protect our good name in this country 
and let the Woi'ld knotv that our group remains' second to none in defense of true 
democracy and liherty. 

"Bozena B. Spackova, Betka Kontos, Martha Kralik, Joseph Triner, 
John F. Brezina, Andrew J. Valusek, Anna Falta, Andrew J. 
Laska, Edward Rezabek, Joseph E. Peck, James Krakora, Julius 
Kuchynka, Frank Bardoun, John Golosinec, John J. Lisy, Rose 
Sterba, Blanche J. Cihak, Vlasta Dvorak-Bezkostny." 



A very rare and important anniversary will be celebrated next year by the 
Americans of Czechoslovakian origin. One hundred years ago, early in January 
1850. a Czech society was founded in New York City. 

This was the first Czech society organized in the United States of America. 
The first immigrants from Czechoslovakia had arrived in America at a much 
earlier date. The first Czech immigrant was Augustin Herman of Maryland 
fame, who came to New Amsterdam in 1633. During the eighteenth century the 
Moravian Brethren came and established their settlement in Savannah, Georgia, 
in 1735. They founded the town of Bethlehem in Pennsylvania in 1741. But 
this originally Czech church included many of other nationalities beside the 
handful of Czechs. It was only after a new wave of immigration following the 
upheavals of 1848 in Europe that the ground work for an organized Czech social 
life in this country was laid. 

According to Thomas Capek this first Czech club, which was organized for 
benevolent and educational purposes, was known as the Czechoslavonian Society 
in America. Others claim that the name was The First Czecho-Slavonian So- 
ciety. Its headquarters were located at 14 City Hall Place on the site of tho 
present Municipal Building in New York. It was organized on the initiative of 
Vojta Naprstek, a Czech patriot and a political refugee who came to this country 
in December 1848 in order to escape tlie clutches of the Austrian police who 
sought to arrest him for participation in the rebellion against the State. He 
became a librarian of the society, which disbanded in a year or two. The second 
and more successful organization of this kind was founded later in 1854 in 
St. Louis, Mo., Bohemian Slavonic Benevolent Society (CSPS). It still exists, 
under the name of Czechoslovak Society of America (CSA) and is known as 
the oldest American fraternal union in existence. 

The Czechoslovak National Council of America is preparing a celebration o£ 
the 100th anniversary of the New York Society and calls upon all Czechoslovakian 
organizations to take part in this affair so important for Americans of Czecho- 
slovakian origin. The role they have played in the liberation of their old coun- 
try is comparatively well known. Less known is the part they have played in 
the development of this country. The coming 100th anniversary of the founding 
of the first Czechoslovakian society in the United States of America provides 
an excellent occasion for a review of their history. By coincidence this anniver- 
sary falls in with 100th anniversary of the birth of Thomas G. Masaryk, the 
greatest leader of Czechoslovakian democracy and Father of the Czechoslovak 
Republic. His close relations to this country are well known. His wife Charlotte, 
so beloved by all Czechoslovakians, was an American lady of the old American 
stock. T. G.Masaryk issued the Declaration of Independence of Czechoslovakia 
on the American soil, in Washington. D. C, on October 18, 1918. What an oppor- 
tunity for all Americans of Czechoslovakian ancestry to honor their American 
pioneers and by remembering Masaryk's heritage to reaffirm their faith in 

[Release No. 2, April 1949] 


Czechoslovakian Democracy Refuses To Stay Buried 

Since the Communist coup d'etat which occurred in February last year, over 
20,000 Czechoslovakian patriots escaped abroad. All walks of life are reprxj- 
sented among them : High officials of the former democratic government and 
leaders of non-Communist parties, intellectuals and artisans, many trade-union- 
ists, Sokols, students, and some persons deprived of their property, or fearing 
the loss of personal liberty. Of 186 non-Communist members of the Parliament, 
57 fled abroad. 

Of the political refugees from the countries behind the Iron Curtain, the 
Czechoslovaks suceeded soon to form the most unified and all-inclusive political 
representation abroad, to voice their demand for restitution of liberty of their 
native land and to promote advancement of the economic and social status of 
the masses of refugees. It was organized on the first anniversary of the Com- 
nmnist putsch and took place in Washington, D. C, where on October 18, 1918, 


Thomas G. Masaryk proclaimed the independence of Czechoslovakia. It is called 
the Council of Free Czechoslovakia and includes leaders of all political parties 
represented in the I're-Comniunist I'arliament and is enlarged by representatives 
of the pre-war Agrarian party and several outstanding ambassadors and news- 
papermen. Dr. Petr Zenkl, former vice-premier of Czechoslovakia and Lord 
Mayor of Prague and president of the National Socialist (Benes) party, was 
elected chairman ; Dr. Jozef Lettrich, former president of the Slovakian Demo- 
cratic Party and Vaclav Majer, former Minister of Supplies and leader of the 
Czech Social Democratic Party, were chosen as vice-chairmen. The headquarters 
of the Council are located in Washington, D. C, with branch offices in London 
and Paris. 

Immediately upon its foundation, the Coimcil of Free Czechoslovakia issued a 
proclamation to the Czechoslovakian people denouncing the Communist totali- 
tarian regime. In a statement recently published, it welcomes heartily the 
formation of the Atlantic Pact, and its purpose to secure national independence 
of free countries, to maintain democratic liberties and to resist aggression. It 
also expressed the hope that the forces of strengthened democracy will soon 
bring about restoration of democracy in Czechoslovakia, temporarily crushed 
but refusing to acknowledge defeat. 

Spirit of Masakyiv Continues in Exile 

(F'rom the address delivered by Assistant Secretary of Labor, Mr. John W. 
Gibson, at the commemoration of the ODth birthdy of T. G. Masaryk, which 
was held under the auspices of the Czechoslovak National Council, at the 
Bohemian National Hall, New York City, March 7, 1949 : ) 

Thomas Masaryk died more than eleven years ago and the Republic of Czecho- 
slovakia was, in the meantime, twice dominated by foreign powers. Once 
pliysically by the Nazis and for the second time by international Con muuism. 

These powers were in the past and are now today eager to obliterate the 
memory of Thomas Masaryk in his homeland. At the present time, his pictures 
and books are disappearing in Czechoslovakia, though not from the hearts and 
minds of a large majority of its citizens. 

Many of his close friends and followers left Czechoslovakia and some of them 
i-ecently founded the Council of Free Czechoslovakia in Washington. Thomas 
Masaryk's spirit continues, today in exile over here in the country he loved so 
much, as his followers seek to throw off the yoke of oppression imposed by a 
ruthless dictatorship. 

It is the sincere hope of all lovers of freedom and democracy, that the time 
will come soon, when the free citizens of Czechoslovakia will again be able to 
openly adhere to Thomas Masaryk's ideals which coincide with those the entire 
world is striving for today. 

The great Czechoslovak leader, whom you so deeply love, believed firmly in 
democracy and freedom. He opposed and fought all dictator.ships, Nazi as well 
as Communist. He taught his people tolerance and respect for their fellow men. 
His slogan was "Truth will always prevail." Freedom is not only an inherent 
right of all Americans, it is the fundamental right of all the peoples of the 

Cold War Among Slavs 

The officers of the American Slav Congress appealed to the members of the 
Congress and to the President, to end the cold war between the United States 
of America and the Soviet Union. They heartily recommended a meetivUg between 
President Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin. Unfortunately, the American 
Slav Congress entirely forgot the cold war raging among Slavs themselves and 
increasing in intensity. This cold war waged by terrible diplomatic and eco- 
nomic pressure, by Russia and her satellites against Yugoslavia, is entirely 
appropriate for the American Slav Congress to address its appeal to the Russian 
Politburo and Mr. Stalin, and to recommend a meeting between Mr. Stalin and 
Mr. Tito, in order to compose their differences and to set an example how to 
end a cold war. * * * 

Great Leader Not Forgotten 

While in Czechoslovakia, now under the Communist regime, INIarch 7, the 
ninety-ninth anniversary of the birth of Thomas G. Masaryk, the late president 


and founder of the Czechoslovak Republic, passed almost unnoticed and was. 
hardly mentioned in the press, the Czechoslovakian democrats in free countries 
of the world remembered the heritage of this great leader of democracy, and 
drew fresh inspiration from his struggles for freedom. Democratic refugees 
from Czechoslovakia arranged memorial meetings in every camp for Displaced 
Persons in the Allied zones in Germany and Austria, as well as in Italy, in Lon- 
don, Paris, and in ScandinaviiTn cities. Numerous public meetings, lectures^ con- 
certs, and radio broadcasts were held in the United States, by the Americans of 
Czechoslovakian origin, and American friends of Czechoslovakian democracy. 
The most impressive of these celebrations was held on March 7, by the District 
Committee of the Czechoslovak National Council and the Czechoslovak Legion- 
naires, at the Bohemian Hall in New York City. It was addressed not only by 
the national and local leaders of the group ; but also by the representatives of 
the Council of Free Czechoslovakia, recently founded in Washington by the 
political refugees, and by Honorable John W. Gibson, Assistant Secretary of 
Labor. The mayors of the cities of New York, and Baltimore, and governors 
of the states of New Y'ork, Ohio, Illinois, and loAva proclaimed March 7th as 
Masaryk Day, in expression of sympathy of the American people for Czechoslovak 
democracy and freedom. 

Peepabations foe Czechoslovak Pioneee Cextenniax 

On May 7th a conference, called by the District Committee of the Czechoslovak 
National Council of Eastern States, will meet in New York City, for the puipose 
of laying plans for the celebration of the 100th anniversary of founding of the 
first Czech society in the United States, and the 100th anniversary of the birth 
of T. G. Masaryk, the founder of Czechoslovakia. Similar preparations for the 
Czechoslovakian pioneer centennial, will be made in other communities with a 
considerable number of the population of Czechoslovakian descent. They wish to 
honor their pioneers and to proclaim their loyalty to democracy, as well as, their 
opposition to the totalitarian regime which recently usurped power in the land 
of their ancestors. 

Masaeyk Memoeial Stamps 

To perpetuate the memory and high ideals of Jan Masaryk and his illustrious 
father, TGM, the Czechoslovak National Council of America issued Masaryk 
Memorial Stamps. They are sent to all friends of Czechoslovakian democracy 
who contribute to the cultural fund of the organization. Send your orders to 
2345 S. Kedzie Avenue, Chicago 23, Illinois. 


Traces of Weste7'7i influence hard to eradicate 

During the last year, 5,970 new books were published in Czechoslovakia. Of 
these 4,286 in the Czech and 770 in the Slovakian languages. There were 692 
translations from the foreign literatures and 222 books were published in foreign 
languages. In spite of all efforts to eliminate everything reminding the Czecho- 
slovakian people of the West, the translations from English still were leading. 
Foreign authors were represented in this order : British, American, French, and 

30,000 Czechoslovakian workers to 6e sent to Russia 

Arrangements were recently made for sending 30,000 skilled Czechoslovakian 
workers to the Soviet armament plants in the "safe regions" beyond Ural 
Mountains. This labor-expeditionary force will not be composed of volunteers. 

Wotnen in the building industry 

One of the reforms which is closely copying the Russian model, is extremely 
unpopular with the Czechoslovakian working population. It is the employment 
of women as day laborers in the building industry. The workers object strongly 
to the employment of women in the hardest manual labor and have no sympathy 
with this strange interpretation of the equal rights for women. 

"Cuttinff doivn icages rightful and just" 

Since Januaiy 1. 1949, a new labor law was adopted in the Communist-ruled 
Czechoslovakia. The wages and salaries are divided into eight categories mean- 


ing very substantial lowering of wages. The introduction of the new law was 
preceded by an intensive press campaign which denounced "equalitarlan tendency 
in wages." Even "Prace," the main organ of the Communist-dominated trade 
unions admits that the law is very unpopular, but concluded its article with these 
words : "As conscious unionists and socialists, we must recognize that this lower- 
ing of wages is both appropriate and just." 


Black list revived 

The Works Councils in the nationalized Czechoslovakian industry were in- 
structed by the government to refuse employment to anyone who cannot produce 
a statement from his former employer, that he quit his previous employment 
with the consent of the employer and is recommended by him. 

Gallows Humor Behind the Iron Curtain 

Practically nobody in Czechoslovakia believes that Jan Masaryk committed 
suicide. The good people of Prague will tell you with a wink of the eye, that 
Jan was not only a gi-eat statesman but also one of the greatest acrobats of his 
time because he succeeded in jumping out of the window and yet managed to 
shut the window behind himself. 

(Published by the Czechoslovak National Council of America, 2345 S. Kedzie 
Avenue, CJiicago 23, Illinois. Subscription price $1.00 for 12 issues.) 

[Release No. 3, May 1949] 

President Truman Praised for Stand Against Totalitarian Aggression 

The Hon. Harry S. Truman, 

President of the United States of America, 

Washington, D. C. 

Mr. President : Americans of Czechoslovak origin assembled in convention 
this seventh day of May 1949 in New York City under the auspices of the Czecho- 
slovak National Council of America, Eastern Division, send greetings. 

On this occasion we wish to convey to you our assurances that Americans of 
Czechoslovak origin are deeply loyal to democratic ideals of the United States of 
America and ai'e sincerely devoted to this, our country- 

The loss of Democracy in Czechoslovakia, the c<mntry of our forebears, has 
brought to us a new appreciation of the liberties enjoyed here in full equality 
and a deeper sense of obligation to our nation for all freedoms so justly guaran- 
teed by our constitution. 

We wish further to thank you for your alile leadership in the alleviation of 
suffering throughout the world and for your firm determination to safeguard 
world peace as well as your staunch efforts against totalitarian aggression. 

Please accept our assurances that Americans of Czechoslovak origin will always 
be among the first to rise to the defense of American democracy against any 
enemy, internal or external. 

L. V. Vydra, Sec7-etary. 


Elections and plebiscites under the dictators heretofore were a simple matter. 
The single ticket supported by all the ways and at the disposal of a police state 
usually assured at least ninety i)ercent approval of Hitler's, Mussolini's, Stalin's 
or Franco's candidates or policies. It came therefore as a distinct surprise 
causing many comments and was interpreted as a sure sign of ebbing of the 
Communists'" influence when in recent elections in Eastern Germany 34 percent 
of the electorate found courage to vote against the single ticket presented by the 

A less commented upon and passed almost unnoticed but equally important sign 
of the same trend occurred recently in Czechoslovakia. 

Last March the long-posti)oned elections to the Works Council in Czechoslo- 
vakian factories were held and resulted in a very unpleasant surprise to the 
Communist regime. 


According to the Communist daily "Rude Pravo" of April 16, 1949, one-third of 
the eligible voters in Slovakia and fully one-half of the electorate in the Czech 
provinces of Bohemia and Moravia failed to appear at the polls. 

In Bohemia and Moravia, the most industrial regions of the Republic, out of 
203,044 eligil)le voters only 102,830 actually participated in the elections, as 
admitted by the Prague daily. 

This happened in Czechoslovakia, where compulsory Toting was successfully 
practised since the inception of the Republic: where full participation in the 
elections, under Masaryk and Benes was always exemplary, and where indus- 
trial workers always constituted the most active and most disciplined political 
srroup, voting in all elections almost to a man. It should also be mentioned 
that the trade-unions in Czechoslovakia are 100-percent Communist dominated 
and yet failed to assure success for tlie elections in the Czech factories. 

There is only one explanation for this phenomenon. 

The masses of Czech workers refused point-blank to be a party to a political 
farce and defied the regime by their abstention. 

There was only a single ticket presented by the Communist trade-unions. 
The voting was not by a secret ballot ; it was a public affair ; the votes were 
oast in the open, in ;in atmosphere of intimidation, and in the presence of the 
factory police the so-called workers Militia. 

The refusal of one-half of the eligible voters to participate in the elections 
to the Works Councils is a sure sign of the dislike of the Communist regime 
among industrial workers. And the fact that the Communists are losing favor 
even with the industrial workers, the allegedly privileged group, highly favored 
by the government is a proof that a huge majority of Czechoslovakian people 
are opposed to the present regime and detest totalitarianism. 


The efforts of Czechoslovakian Communists to gain favor with the Americans 
of Czechoslovak origin meets with ever stronger opposition. 

Answering the call for action in defense of our democracy, the Czech and Slo- 
vak organizations of the Eastern States met in a highly successful convention 
which was held in New York City, on May 7. 

The Convention was presided by Mr. Andrew Valusek, president of the Slovak 
Sokol Union, and was addressed by Mr. Charles M. Prchal, of Chicago, president 
of the Czechoslovak National Council of America, and by Dr. Petr Zenkl, of 
Washington, president of the Council of Free Czechoslovakia, recently formed 
by the democratic refugees. Several members of this organization and a number 
of local leaders discussed the problems arising out of the present crisis. A 
telegram was sent to the President of the United States praising him for a firm 
stand against totalitarian aggression. A ringing call was issued to all Americans 
of Czechoslovak origin, stressing the opposition to Communism and welcoming 
the initiative of the Czechoslovak National Council of America in this respect. 
The convention promised moral support to the Council of Free Czechoslovakia in 
its efforts to restore democracy of that country and urged relief for the demo- 
cratic refugees from Czechoslovakia. 

The native-born generation was well represented at a convention and took 
a prominent part in its deliberations. 


20 percent of college students expelled from schools 

Czechoslovakia had, in 1947, 18 schools of university grade with 55,000 students. 
Since the Communists usurped power last year, more than 11,000 students have 
been expelled from schools and compelled to give up further studies. 

Strange redefinition of democracy 

Speaking at the convention of the Czechoslovakian writers on March 7th, in 
Prague, Dr. Vaclav Kopecky, the Minister of Information, thus defined the sub- 
stance and aspects of the so-called People's Democracy now ruling Czechoslovakia : 

"It is clear to us even, that on the road to socialism, the People's Democracy 
may fulfill the function of a dictatorship of the Proletariat, thus becoming one 
of its characteristic forms." 


Hard to serve neic masters 

Since February 1948, 70 percent of Czechoslovakian Ambassadors, Ministers and 
Consuls, have either resigned or been recalled to Prague. The Communists 
divided all employees of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs into three categories: 
1. Reliable for service abroad, 2. Reliable for service in Prague, 3. Unreliable. 

"Order of February24" 

By a decree of the government of Czechoslovakia, a new "Order of the 24th of 
February" was recently Established. It will be awarded to individuals for deeds 
that made the Communist Coup d'etat possible. The Czechoslovakian patriots 
welcome the official list of these undisputed traitors for whom it will be hard 
indeed to find excuses when the day of retribution will arrive. 

Popular car at unpopular price 

The Communist Ministry of Internal Commerce announced that the four sets 
of Skoda-Popular automobile, will sell at the "Free market" for the price of 
450,000 korunas (50 korunas equal 1 dollar). The average monthly wages of 
Czechoslovakian workers is 3,000 korunas. 

Tliought police in action 

Several Czech priests were accused of delivering sermons containing "hidden 
pronouncements against the People's Democratic regime." 


The Atlantic Pact Discussed aboard a Streetcar 

The conductors in the streetcars in Prague are still collecting the fare by 
passing among the passengers and selling them tickets. It happened that on 
the morning of the day when the radio announced the decision of Norway to join 
the Atlantic Pact one conductor called in a pitched voice as soon as the car 
left the stop "Tickets ! Tickets ! Who came in ?" As if answering a question 
concerning the Atlantic Pact, uppermost in the minds of all of that time, a voice 
in the rear gravely informed him in a true Shweik style : Norway ! 

All passengers laughed, that is, all with the exception of two Communists who 
called in the policeman at the next stop in order to apprehend the "political 
provocator"' who had publicly manifested his sympathy with the abominable 
Western imperialism. * * * 



The fourth edition of Progressive Czech by Bohumil Mikula is now available. 
This textbook of the Czech language by an American scholar, was published by 
the Czechoslovak National Council of America, and is being used in American 
Universities, colleges, and public and denominational high schools. It contains 
grammar, reading matter, and a Czech-English as well as English-Czech dic- 
tionary ; 578 pages, price $3.62 pp. Send your orders to the Czechoslovak National 
Council of America, 2345 S. Kedzie Avenue, Chicago 23, 111. 

(Published by the Czechoslovak National Council of America, 2345 S. Kedzie 
Avenue, Chicago 23, Illinois. Subscription price $1.00 for 12 issues.) 

[Release No. 4, June 1949] 
If Free Elections in Greece Why Not Also in Czechoslovakia? 

The recent offer of the Greek guerrilla leaders, for liquidation of the Civil War 
in Greece on the basis of free elections under the supervision of the United 
Nations and the subsequent approval of this offer by the Soviet Union opens the 
way for similar settlement of internal troubles elsewhere. 

If free elections under international control in Greece why not free elections in 
Czechoslovakia? If such elections can be used to liquidate a civil war, why 
not use them to prevent a civil war? 

The people of Czechoslovakia are clamoring such elections. They expressed 
their will recently by means of a mass letter-writing campaign. The American 


Embassy in Prague received no less than 30,000 letters demanding such elections, 
in spite of all obstacles put in the way by the police state. 

Heretofore the Communists objected to international supervision of such elec- 
tions and branded it as unpermissible intervention in the internal affairs of the 
countries behind the "Iron Curtain." After its approval in the Greek case there 
can be no valid objection to it in the Czechoslovakian case. 

The Western Allies similarly have advocated free elections under the supervi- 
sion of the United Nations and extension of civil liberties to the people of Eastern 
Germany — and rightly so. But what about Czechoslovakia? Certainly the people 
of Czechoslovakia, our true and tried Ally in two world wars, deserve some con- 
sideration and the same measure of rights and liberties as the people of the 
nation with which we still are technically at war. We must not forget further- 
more, that Czechoslovakia was included in the Eastern zone by a deal among 
the Big Powers — without being consulted — and that our country, the United 
States of America, was a partner to this deal. Thus we have a certain responsi- 
bility for the fate of Czechoslovakian democracy, a responsibility which we can- 
not avoid. 

The Czechoslovak National Council of America requested the United btates 
delegation at the conference of Four Powers in Paris, to impress the conference 
with tlie necessity of giving the Czechoslovakian people a chance to decide their 
fate by free elections under the supervision of the United Nations. This demand 
should be fully supported by all fair-minded citizens interested in a peaceful 
settlement of the troubles behind the Iron Curtain. 

State-Contkolled Church Communist Goal in Czechoslovakia 

The Communist assault upon Archbishop Beran and the Catholic Church in 
Czechoslovakia is reaching its climax. At the time our readers will read these 
lines, the Archbishop probably will have been arrested. 

What is the real goal of the Communist regime in the church crisis they are 

Not the destruction of the church or separation of the church from the state. 
The Communists have learned by bitter experience, that they cannot hope to 
eradicate religion and suppress the church at one single sweep. They have not 
succeeded in this in the Soviet Union after 30 years of their absolute rule. They 
know quite well they cannot achieve this goal in Central Europe nor in the Bal- 
kans. For this reason they have set for themselves as a less pretentious goal, not 
the separation of church from the state but, on the contrary, the establishment of 
state-controlled churches, run by the Communist indoctrinated Action-Committees 
in the same way as they run all non-Communist organizations which are still 
I)ermitted to exist. 

In Czechoslovakia they have already succeeded in making two churches fully 
subservient to their rule, namely, the small Orthodox church which was placed in 
addition under the jurisdiction of the Orthodox Church in Tiloscow, and the 
National Czechoslovak Church, which broke away from the Rome after the first 
World War. The Roman Catholic Church under the leadership of the able and 
extremely popular Archbishop Beran has refused so far to listen to cajoling and 
threats and is now a subject of severe persecution. It is natural to assume that a 
similar fate will soon befall the Protestant churches. 

The Communists tried first to gain favor with the Catholic Church by peaceful 
means and by cajoling. When President Gottwald was elected to the oflice made 
vacant by President Benes, he — an avowed atheist — attended the Mass, served by 
Archbishop Beran in the St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague. Yet in the same cathe- 
dral, on June 20, Archbishop Beran was silenced by jeers of Communist provoca- 
tors planted among the faithful. * * * 

Prepare for the U. S. Census 

Next year a general census will be taken in the United States. 

It will include the enumeration of members of different nationalities and races, 
a very important problem in a country where so many different races live side by 

It is highly desirable that the census taking be as accurate as humanly iwssible. 

An accurate census may help us to straighten up many mooted questions. 
When for instance a claim is made during a political campaign — as it actually was 
made in the last presidential election — that a certain nationality commands six 
million votes and will turn them a certain way, it will be readily recognized as a 


gross exaggeration when confronted with tlie census figures according to which 
barely two and one-half millions of people of the first, second, and third genera- 
tions, children included, were enumerated in this group. 

The census of the United States is the most reliable source of information 
about many pertinent ingredients in our melting pot. 

This does not, however, mean that there is no room for its improvement. 

In the 1940 Census many persons of Czech origin were listed as Germans simply 
because at that time Czechoslovakia was — temporarily — a part of Hitler's 
Greater Germany. ITiis was done in spite of the correct instructions given to the- 
census takers. In many instances these instructions were not followed. In 
many instances the Czechoslovak National Council of America had to call the 
attention of the authorities to a violation of these instructions. 

There is a danger that the Communist coup d'etat in Czechoslovakia last year 
and the anti-American policies of the present Communist government of Czecho- 
slovakia may lead to similar misunderstandings. We all can help by convincing 
our fellow citizens that they should answer the questionnaire correctly and make- 
sure that tlie census takers accurately follow given instructions. 

The Slovak National Alliance of America Reokganized 

The Slovak National Alliance of America held its national conference at New 
York, on June 1949. It was attended by delegates from New York. New Jersey^ 
the New England States, Pennsylvania, and Illinois. The conference unani- 
mously decided to continue its affiliation with the Czechoslovak National Council 
of America, in Chicago ; to give moral support to the Council of Free Czecho- 
slovakia in Washington in its efforts to free Czechoslovakia from the yoke of 
totalitarianism ; and to extend aid to the democratic refugees from the Com- 
munist dominated Czechoslovakia Ijy supporting tlie American Fund for Czecho- 
slovak Refugees. 

The Slovak National Alliance was formed in 1939 and has become one of the 
component parts of the Czeclioslovak National Council of America. Contrary 
to the older organization, The Slovak League, which supported the Nazi puppet 
government in Slovakia, the Alliance worked steadfastly for the restitution of 
democratic Czechoslovak Repultlic. 

The present officers of the Alliance are : Andrew Valnsek, of New York, presi- 
dent ; John Golosinec, of Chicago, and Anna Noehto. of New York, vice presidents ; 
John Drahos, of New York, secretary. The headquarters of the Alliance will 
remain in New York City. 

A Monument to T. G. Masaryk To Be Erected in Chicago 

The celebration of the one hundredth anniversary of the birth of Thomas G, 
Masaryk, to be held in 1950, will actually begin tliis fall. A monument honoring 
the great leader of Czechoslovakia and world democracy will be erected at the 
entrance of the University of Chicago. (In his professorial days Masaryk was 
a member of the staff of this university.) The statue, the work of the noted 
Czechoslovak-American sculptor, Albin Polasek, formerly of the Chicago Art 
Institute, will be dedicated on or around October 28, the Czechoslovak Independ- 
ence Day. The date was cliosen purposely as that holiday was replaced by the 
new Communist regime in Czechoslovakia with Noveml)er 7. the anniversary of 
the Bolshevik revolution in Russia. The Chicago event is, therefore, planned as 
a mighty demonstration against the totalitaria^n regime in Prague which tram- 
pled down the ideals of the great founder of the Czechoslovakian democracy. 

The Masaryk Memorial Committee, which is sponsoring this celebration, was 
organized by the late John Toman, their county treasurer of Cook County, Illi- 
nois, before the Second World War. The war interrupted the work of this com- 
mittee. The necessary funds were badly needed for the movement to liberate 
Masaryk's country from the Nazis and later on, immediately after the war, there 
was even more pressing need for the alleviation of the suffering caused by the 
ravages of war and by tlie Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia. 

The Masaryk Memorial Committee is headed by Mr. John A. Cervenka, former 
city purchasing agent in Chicago. Mr. Charles M. Prchal is secretary of the 


Sad News From the Old Country 

economic war between czechoslovakia and yugoslavia 

The Czeclioslovak government orderecl in Jnne a ban on all Czechoslovakian 
exports to Yugoslavia. It was pushed into an economic war with this Slavic 
country by Moscow, which is trying to organize an economic blockade of Yugo- 
slavia.' Thus Czechoslovakia is being deprived of one of the best outlets for its 
goods and at the same time is being cut off from a very important source of raw 
material for its industries. This is the second time that Russia caused irrepara- 
ble economic loss to Czechoslovakia for reasons of her own. In 1947 Stalin forced 
Czechoslovakia to withdraw from the Marshall plan although even the Commu- 
nist ministers in Benes' cabinet originally voted for it. 


The new regime of Czechoslovakia is tightening the screws ever more. Secret 
tribunals are pronouncing sentences of death and executions of patriots daily. 
Death sentences were pronounced in the trials of the Liska and Choc groups. 
The most glaring example of the Communist "justice" is the recent execution 
of Gen. Heliodor Pika. One of his "crimes" was— as quoted by the Daily 
Woi-ker — that he established connection with the British Intelligence Service in 
Britain in— 1940. At that time Moscow had a pact with Hitler and Mr. Moloto\ 
was dining lavishly with Yon Ribbentrop. 


To be sentenced to jail is no insurance against death by torture in Communist- 
dominated Czechoslovakia. The latest victims are General Janousek and Colonel 
Lukas, who died very soon after their incarceration. Both served with the 
British Air P'orce during the war. Both were eliminated and liquidated as 


The number of suicides for political reasons are increasing in a horrible 
way. The most significant case recently discovered is that of Prof. Autonin 
Yosicka, well known in this country, who obtained his doctor's degree at the 
Northwestern University in Chicago. Yosicka, a lecturer of English at the 
Charles University in Prague, was made despondent by the Communist inter- 
ference in his teaching and by suppression of three of his books by the Ministry 
of Information. The new constitution of Czechoslovakia provides "guarantee" 
of freedom of scientific research, but apparently that is pure window dressing. 


When President Gottwald was installed last year an amnesty was declared. 

The purpose of it evidently was to make room for new prisoners. Today there 
are between 60,000-75,000 patriots in the jails. The number of those who were 
sent to the Forced Labor Camps runs into hundreds of thousands. 

masaeyk's words came teue 

Two months before he died, Jan Masaryk warned his fellow countrymen in a 
speech delivered at Brno University that a disi'uption of relations with the West 
would result in drastic lowering of standard of life in Czechoslovakia. His 
words came true. Even the Commmiist daily "Rude Pravo" admits that the 
average wages have fallen from 3,000 Kcs. to 2,500 Kcs. At the same time a 
suit of clothes costs from 10,000 Kcs. to 20,000 Kcs. ( .$200-$300 ) . 


830 South Fifth Street. Established 1913. Phone Mitchell 5-4373 


Publishers of the 

"Obzob" — {The American^Yugoslav Observer) 

A Weekly News Publication for Americans of Yugoslav Descent in Wisconsin 

Frank R. Stadt, editor and publisher 

Presenting also the American- Yugoslav (Slovenian) Radio Hoxjb Oveb WEXT 

Radio Station 

Milwaukee 4, Wis., June 29, 1949. 

Hon. John S. Wood, 

Chairman, House Commitee on Un-American Activities, 

Washington, D. C. 

Dear Me. Chairman : In New York Times of June 2G, 1949, on page 1, section 1, 
and on page 34, column 3, I read the latest official report of your Committee 
on Un-American Activities of the American Slav Congress, and to my great 
astonishment found the name of my paper, the "Yugoslovenski Obzor, Milwau- 
kee," listed among the "organizations actively associated with the American 
Slav Congress." 

I don't know how did it happen that our paper was included among these organ- 
izations, while, by right, it should be listed among the loyal ones, but I presume 
that your Committee, by all probability, found the name of my paper on the 
official mailing list of the American Slav Congress, which, during the war years 
and after, bombarded every Slavic-language newspaper in this country, includ- 
ing ours, with its communistic propaganda and literature. This propaganda 
stuff kept coming to my desk from the American Slav Congress despite my fre- 
quent demands that they strike the name of our paper off their mailing list. 
Only a few months ago they finally stopped sending me their traitorous litera- 
ture, which— needless to say — promptly wandered into the wastebasket anyhow 
as soon as it arrived. 

Or, maybe, your Committee found the name of our paper — or rather my 
name, as its editor and publisher — among the organizers of Local Milwaukee 
branch of American Slav Congress (at that time, and still called the American 
Slav Council of Milwaukee County) back in 1942, when its goals and purposes 
were purely patriotic and the Communists did not have any control of it, and 
from which I and the rest of anticommunistic organizers one year later, when 
the Communists in their usual trickery way got control of the majority votes 
at the executive meetings, promptly withdrew. 

I am enclosing 2 sets of original clippings from local newspapers about my 
activities during the war years and after. I beg you, Mr. Chairman, to return 
these clippings to me after you take notice of them, as they are the only ones 
I have and would like to preserve them in my files for eventual future references. 

I may also add that for these activities and for my strongly anticommunistic 
stand and editorial policy of my paper during the dangerous period of appease- 
ment of Russia and its satellites, and of my lone fighting against communistic 
propaganda among my people, I was often threatened with death and destruction 
of my printing plant and property by local Communists — which facts are well 
known to the local FBI oflice ( at least they were promptly reported by me to its 
agents). You will, Mr. Chairman, therefore understand that I was the more 
surprised to find the name of my paper listed among the suspected organizations. 

I hope, Mr. Chairman, that your Committee will find some way of correcting 
this injustice to me and my paper. 
Respectfully yours, 

Frank R. Staitt, 
Editor and Publisher of "Yugoslovenski Obzor." 

Enclosure : 2 sets of newspaper clippings, kindly to be returned. 


[Milwaukee Journal, April 26, 1949] 

Slav Congress Forces Broken by Split in 1943 

group here reduced to small number when foes of communism walked out 

The American Slav Congress, which is being investigated by the House Un- 
American Activities Committee as a Communist "front" organization, is only 
a skeleton of its former self here. 

It remains the central governing body of a doz^en or so left-wing nationality 
organizations among Milwaukeeans of Slavic descent. Its present over-all mem- 
bership here is only a few thousands. 

Six years ago the American Slav Congress was a major organization in the 
city's life. It had about 90 affiliated societies among the Poles, Czechs, Slo- 
vaks, Slovenes, Serbs, Russians, and Ukrainians. It i-epresented nearly 75,000 

But a majority of the Milwaukee members of the congress long ago recognized 
it as a Communist "front" organization and withdrew. The testimony that 
is being offered in Washington, D. C, now to prove the organization's Com- 
munist connections is nothing new to these Milwaukeeans. 

Krzycki Is President 

The national president of the congress for a number of years has been Leo 
Krzycki, 3360 S. 37th St. He attended the Communist-dominated world peace 
meeting in Paris last week as a delegate of the congress and is now on his way 
to Poland. 

In recent years officers of the local group have consistently been "Russia 
firsters." Paul Babich, an important figure in the Communist Party in Wis- 
consin, has been the treasurer for years. Other congress leaders, all out- 
spokenly pro-Soviet, have been Mrs. Josephine Nordstrand, the Communist 
Party's principal "front" organizer in the state ; Mrs. Bozina Klabouch ; Ed- 
mund V. Bobrowicz, Democratic nominee for congress in 1946 who was re- 
pudiated by the Democratic Party as a Communist, and Louis Majtan and John 

IWO Nmv Is Backbone 

Since 1943, when about 75 of 90 affiliated societies withdrew from the con- 
gress, the backbone of the organization has been in the International Workers' 
order chapters in the various nationality groups. The order is the fraternal 
insurance society of the Communist Party. 

The local chapters include the Solidarity club, a Polish IWO affiliate, the 
Ukrainian-American lodge No. 1534 and Croat, Czech, Serb, and Slovak affiliates. 

A few of the Serb and Croat members who remained with the congress after 
the big split in 1943 recently have severed their connections. They were pro- 
Tito, and the Yugoslav dictator's differences with Russia left them puzzled. 

The last public meeting of the congress was in March at the South Side 
Armory, 1620 S. 6th St. At that time, the congress, with the Wisconsin Civil 
Rights congress, another Communist "front" organization, sponsored by the 
appearance here of Mrs. Katherine Ilyndman, of Gary, Ind. Mrs. Hyndman has 
been arrested for deportation for her Communist activities. She is now free on 

Meet at Harmony Hall 

Regular meetings of the congress are held at Harmony Hall, 939 S. 6th street. 

Frank E. Gregorski, a former assistant district attorney, was the president 
of the local American Slav congress before the 1943 break-up. He led 67 Polish 
organizations, which were also members of the Pulaski council, out of the 

"We intended to oust the Communists and reorganize the central body for 
ourselves, but they got the jump on us," Gregorski said. "They went to Madison 
and incorporated, and then we were denied the right to use the name." 

Gregorski explained that the split came as a result of a national convention 
of the congress in Detroit in 1943. The national body went on record approving 
Russian absorption of Poland and the Baltic states and Tito's ascendency in 

The rupture here came soon after the Detroit meeting. At a local meeting 
a large map was placed on a wall. It showed a post-World War II Soviet 
Europe. A resolution condemning the Milwaukee chapter of the Council of 
American-Soviet Friendship for displaying the map was passed at the meeting. 


Forming a "New World" 

Mrs. Nordstrand, who was a "labor" delegate to the congi-ess, told Gregorski 
and his group that they "shouldn't be excited about such things as maps and 

Babich told the Polish delegates that "a new world is being formed, and we 
won't care about you." 

The IWO groups, Babich's Serbian Democratic club and the left wing 
American-Polish labor council quickly passed resolutions condemning the with- 
drawal of the Polish delegates who sided with Gregorski. 

Since that break-up, although the congress has held meetings here regularly, 
it has come to public attention on only a few occasions. 

Once was when Atty. Gen. Tom C. Clark listed the congress and many 
of its remaining affiliates as "subversive" and as Communist "front" groups. 

And now it is the congressional investigation in Washington tiiat promises to 
spotlight the organization's activities. 

[The Milwaukee Journal, July 4, 1948] 

City Yugoslavs Eye Homeland 

most abe opposed to tito and to communism, editor says 

Milwaukee's 40,000 persons of Yugoslav descent are watching with interest 
and anxiety the events in their homeland. 

What is behind the condemnation of Communist Tito by international com- 
munism? And what will this mean to their Croatian, Slovenian, and Serbian 
relatives abi-oad? These are the questions that Milwaukee Yugoslavs are 

Most Croats, Slovenes, and Serbs living in America have been unalterably 
opposed to Tito and his Communist regime from the beginning, according to 
Frank R. Staut, editor of the Slovenian newspaper Obzor. 

"The Slovenes are a democratic people and we are opposed to any form of 
dictatorship and to communism," Staut said. "A Tito-run Communist dictator- 
ship is no better than a Moscow-run dictatorship." 

Religion Is a Factor 

The Slovenes comprise about 20,000 of Milwaukee's Yugoslav population, the 
Croats about 15,000, and the Serbs about 5,000, Staut said. 

The majority of these were born in Europe or are generation Americans 
and it is for that reason that their ties to their native land are especially strong. 
The Croats and the Slovenes are largely Roman Catholic. The Serbians belong 
to the Serbian Orthodox church. It is partially because of their deep religious 
convictions that their opposition to Tito developed, Staut said. 

Father Blase Jerkovic, of St. Augustine's Catholic Church, was outspoken on 
that point. 

"Tito is against all religion and the Yugoslav people will never support him," 
he said. 

Denies Tito is a Croat 

Although biographies list Tito as a Croat whose real name is Josip Broz, 
Father Jerkovic strongly denied that Tito is a Croat. 

"I have parishioners from the area where he is said to have been born and 
they never heard of his family there," Father Jerkovic said. He charged that 
Tito is an oppressor of all Yugoslav people but especially of the religious Croats. 
He said the great majority of all Americans of Yugoslav descent would never 
be satisfied until Tito and all Communists are removed from control. 

An opposite view of the esteem in which Yugoslav Americans hold Tito was 
expressed by Nick Hinich, president of the left-wing American Croatian council. 

"There are only a few loud-mouthed individuals in this country who condemn 
him," Hinich said. "Most of the Yugoslavs here and in Europe have been 
strongly in favor of Tito from the beginning." 

"Not Forming Opinion" 

But Hinich hedged somewhat when asked whether the high regard in which 
he said Tito was held was likely to be changed by the Comiuform's attack on 
the Yugoslav leadei". 


"Our people are not forming any final opinion yet," he declared. "All we have 
^re the newspaper stories and they may be twisted. I don't think the break is 
iis serious as the newspapers state." 

Hinich doubted that there would be any reorientation of Yugoslavia toward 
the United States. Britain, and other western nations unless "the west gives up 
its policies of ownership of resources and exploitation of tlie people." 

Phillip Paiiliu, president of tlie Croatian Central committee, said that liis 
•organization represented 95 percent of the Croats in Milwaukee and that Hinich's 
group represented "only a handful of pro-Communists." 

■Slaying Held Possible 

"Tito and his Communist government are maintained by force and fear," 
Paulin said. '"Your Americans of Croatian descent don't like communism in 
any form." 

Although it is too early for conjecture as to what will happen as a result of the 
Belgrade-Moscow break, Paulin said it was possible that Tito would be slain as 
were Leon Trotsky and other Stalin opponents. 

"But the situation then is not likely to be any better, and it may be worse," 
he added. "Communist control seems to be too strong to be overthrown 

[Milwaukee Journal, September 4, 1946] 
From Yugoslav Editor 
To the Journal : 

The lessons in your editorial "Our Defenders of Tito" in reply to a state- 
ment of "25 or more directors" of the American Slav Council of Milwaukee 
County and the central committee of South Slavic Americans, which appeared 
in your news columns under the heading "Slavs Here Rap Yugoslavia Issue," 
certainly should be helpful in opening the eyest of a considerable number of 
Milwaukee Slavs, especially Yugoslavs, who had been — to quote your words — 
"misled by old world nationalistic feelings or else duped by the American agents 
of Russian communism." But I otter a little clarification, especially in regard 
to the unfounded claim of "25 directors" that they represent 51 Slavic 
member organizations, apparently meaning the organizations in Milwaukee area. 

As publisher of the local Yugoslav newspaper, I am in position to state that 
this is not true or else the 25 directors should publish the names of these 51 
organizations. As far as I know, these "directors" in fact have a few individual 
followers, who may belong to some of these 51 organizations as individual mem- 
bers, using them as their tools and agitators in collecting donations for "war 
relief to Yugoslav people." But none of these organizations (at least none of 
the 3S Slovenian organizations in this area) to my knowledge ever officially 
•endorsed or approved tlie frequent anti-American and pro-Tito statements, which 
these 25 directors have issued in your or the other American papers, thus making 
the impression that All Yugoslavs here are 100% behind them and against the 
American interests or the form of American government. 

Yes. blame for misleading the Slavs here must be placed on your shoulders, 
because of some of your willingness to publish any "statement" and any propa- 
ganda for Tito or Russian communism these Slav directors are sending to your 
desks, thus planting in the mind of the average Slav reader the thought that, 
after all, Tito or Russian communism cannot be so bad when even the Ameiican 
papers are printing such favorable statements and stories for both. On the other 
hand, the general American public gets the impression that all the Slavs are— 
in secret — Communists and ready to turn against this country any moment they 
get their orders from Moscow. 

I can assure you that the great majority of Yugoslavs here really are loyal 
Americans, concerned entirely with the interests of their adopted land. And 
they are thankful to you for saying so and bringing this out. The great majority 
do not try — whether in their hearts or openly — to whitewash Tito or his present 
regime in Yugoslavia for shooting down American fliers. On the contrary, they 
are condemning this foolish (if it were not so tragic) act of his soldiers. They 
just feel the more sorry for the innocent and unfortunate Yugoslav people abroad, 
who have suffered so much during the war, have hoped all these years that they 
would be really liberated by Anglo-Americans and benefited by western democ- 
i-acy after their liberation, but instead have fallen under another slavery and 
dictatorship, which threatens to drag them into another war. 


We know our people in the old country and we know that they don't want to 
have Russian communism imposed on them any more than the Americans would 
want it. And they are therefore unhappy to think that some day they might be 
forced to fight against us. 

If people of Yugoslavia are throwing up their caps and shouting for Tito 
today, as you said in another editorial, "Getting Kicked," they are not doing 
that because they are ungrateful to the United States for UNRRA goods they 
are receiving, but because they have to do that or else they won't get them. 

It's still the same old story in Europe : Before, tliere were kings and kaisers. 
The people formerly had to shout for them. Now for the marshals. 

Frank R. Staut, 
Editor and Publisher, the Obi^or (The Yugoslav Observer), 

820 S. 5th Street, MiUoaiikee. 

[Milwaukee Journal, Sept. 24, 1946] 
Slovenians Organize To Block Communists 

About 30 representatives of Slovenian groups in the city, principally those 
affiliated with the Slovenian Catholic union, Monday night organized an associa- 
tion which they said hoped to combat any attempt by Communists to infiltrate 
into their organizations. They adopted the name of American Slav Alliance for 
Upholding American Democracy, Slovenian branch. The meeting was held at 
St. John the Evangelist Catholic church hall, S. 9th and W. Mineral Sts. 

"We hope that other nationality groups will form similar organizations," said 
Frank R. Staut. 

Frank Lipoglavsek, 3601 W. Burnham St., was elected temporary chairman ; 
Frank Slatinshek, 81.5 S. 5th St., vice chairman ; Joseph Luzar, Jr., 1010 S. 9th 
St., treasurer, and Miss Agnes Jenich, 1231 W. Mineral St., recording secretary. 
The group's next meeting will be held Oct. 28. 

[Milwaukee Sentinel, Sept. 25, 1946] 
Slovenes Here To Fight Communism 

A group of Milwaukee Slovenes has organized to block Communism, it was an- 
nounced yesterday by Frank R. Staut, editor and publisher of a Slovenian lan- 
guage newspaper. "The name American Slav Alliance For Upholding American 
Democracy-Slovenian Branch, was adopted. Tiiese officers were elected : Frank 
Lipoglavsek, president ; Frank Slatinshek, vice president ; Joseph Luzar, Jr., 
treasurer, and Miss Agnes Jenich, secretary. 

Congress of the United States, 

House of Representatives, 
Wushingtan, D. C, July 6, 1949. 
Mr. Frank R. Staut, 

Editor and Publisher, Obzor, 

830 South Fifth Street, Milwaukee 4, Wis. 
Dear Mr. Staut : Reference is made to your letter of June 29 witli respect to 
the inclusion by the Committee on Un-American Activities of both you and your 
paper, Obzor, on the list of persons or organizations actively associated with 
the American Slav Congress. 

The Committee, in preparing its report on the American Slav Congress, well 
realized that certain persons and organizations had withdrawn from association 
with the American Slav Congress. Certain of these were given credit in the 
publication and in a footnote the Committee stated : "It is possible that there 
are other such cases which have not been brought to the attention of the com- 
mittee." The information received by the Committee since the publication of 
its report conclusively shows that you and your publication for some years have 
been actively combatting the Communist movement, especially the infiltration of 
Commimists into foreign nationality groups within the Wisconsin area. 

I extend to you the congratulations of the Committee for the fine job you and 
your publication are doing to bring a true light of the Communist conspiracy to 
the attention of your people. 
Sincerely yours, 

John S. Wood, Chairman. 



Polsko-Amektkanska Rada Pbact 

Telephone Walnut 1-S192 


Officers : Fr. Ostrowski, president ; A. Arciszewski, vice president ; J. K. Wieczorek, vice 
president ; Jan Groom, vice president ; Anthony Wojsowski, general secretary ; Bol. 
Tomaszewski, treasurer ; J. D. Wlodarczyk, organizer. Directors : Anthony Krawulski, 
Leon liusinowicz, Jan Artykiewicz, Ign. Piekarniak 

May 10, 1949. 

The Honorable John S. Wood, 

Chairman of the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
U. 8. House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Chairman : General Modelski, testifying before the Subcommittee of 
the Committee on Un-American Activities on March 11, 1949, referred to a docu- 
ment which was introduced in the minutes as Exhibit I. The English translation 
of this document contains an error namely, it refers to a Polish American Labor 
Council, while in the original Polish document the name of the organization 
mentioned, is American Polish Labor Council. 

Our organization, the Polish American Labor Council is and always was very 
strongly opposed to communism. Our aim is to enlighten the workers of Polish 
descent about tlie danger of communism. 

The communists organized the American Polish Labor Council to counteract the 
activities of our organization and to confuse the public. Mr. Leon Krzycki, the 
president of the communist dominated American Polish Labor Council, is not 
and never was in any way connected with our organization, the Polish American 
Labor Council. 

Since the testimony of General Modelski was widely publicized and in that 
connection the name of our organization was mentioned as being subversive, we 
would be very grateful for a correction of the translation of Exhibit I and an 
appropriate statement with regard to that matter. 
Very truly yours, 

Frank Ostrowski, President. 
Anthony Wojsowski, Gen. Sec. 

Note. — The following footnote, included in the Report on the American Slav 
Congress, p. 17, with reference to the above organization ; is for the clarification 
of tlie record : 

"In a publication of the committee, containing the testimony of Gen. Izyador 
Modelski, former Military Attache of the Polish Embassy in Washington, D. C, 
reference was made to the Polish-American Labor Council as being a suitable 
contact for employees of the Polish Embassy. The organization to which this 
publication intended to refer was the American-Polish Labor Council and not the 
Polish-American Labor Council, tiie Polish-American Labor Council being a 
thoroughly loyal and patriotic organization. This mistake was the result of an 
error made by the translator of certain documents turned over to the Committee 
by General ^Modelski. The organization referred to above (i. e., in the Report 
on the American Slav Congress) as the American-Polish Labor Council is men- 
tioned in this report upon numerous occasions. This organization, it is hoped, 
will not become confused with the loyal organization identified in this statement 
as the Polish-American Labor Council." 

Institute for Research in Social Science, 

The University of North Carolina, 

Chai)el Hill, December 3, I9.'f9. 
The Honorable John S. Wood, 

Chairman, Un-American Affairs Committee, 

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. 
My Dear Congressman Wood : I have been informed that the Un-American 
Affairs Committee, in its report concerning the Culture and Scientific Con- 
ference for World Peace, which was held in New York last March 25-27, has 
stated that I was a sponsor of the conference, and appeared on the program. 
Simply in order to keep the record straight, I should like to state the facts so 
that there will be no misunderstanding. 


I was never a sponsor of the conference, and I publicly withdrew from the 
program on March 22, stating my reasons quite emphatically. The fact that 
I had refused to appear on the program was reported in a front-page story 
in the New York Times in its edition of iNIarch '2~t. 1!)4!>. and also in a first-page 
story in Newsweek, page 19, in its editi(m of April 4, 1949. Also, my letter of 
withdrawal was printed in full by the Durham Morning Herald, Durham. N. C, 
under date of March I'JT. 1949, and a copy of the same letter was addressed to 
the Secretary of State and may be found in the State Department file. In this 
letter stating why I could not associate myself with the program I made the 
following comment which, I believe, makes my position clear. 

"As regards my own position, I am on the whole a suppoi'ter of the policy 
of the State Department in the postwar period. In my opinion, our international 
polic.v has been much moi-e conducive to world peace and to the settlement 
of outstanding points at issue than have been the policy and actions of the- 
Soviet Union. Although I feel that the objectives and the technique of the 
United States in foreign affairs can be at times improved, my opinions are such 
that I canncit associate myself with any wholesale criticism of the State Depart- 
ment or with any propagandistic attempt to apologize for the actions of the 
Soviet Union in current international affairs. Furthermore, I am so firmly 
wedded to the democratic procedure for arriving at decisions on scientific evi- 
dence, that I will not have any part in resolutions or other decisions of a con- 
ference where this procedure is not guaranteed. 

"Because of my sincere interest in world peace and because I accepted the 
invitation of the conference in good faith. I have prepared a paper arguing 
for the scientific attitude and the increased use of science in international affairs, 
which I am attaching to this letter. However, for the reasons outlined above, 
I have grave doubts that, despite the best efforts of yourself, an atmosphere of 
scholarly and scientific deliberation will prevail at the conference. 

"Rather than engage in a travesty of a scientific meeting, I hereby resign from 
the conference." 

I had accepted an invitation to appear on the program of what I understood 
to be a conference on world peace which was to involve a scholarly and scientific 
analysis of various possibilities. The invitation had been extended to me by 
Professor Harlow Shapley, of Harvard, as one scientist to another. As soon 
as I became aware of what the real purposes of the conference were, I withdrew, 
but by this time my name had already been printed on the program. Since I 
emphatically do not approve of the manner in which the conference was set up 
or handled, I naturally do not wish my position to be misunderstood by the 
Un-American Affairs Committee, or anyone else. 

Thanking you for your consideration, I remain. 
Yours sincerely, 

John Giixin, Professor of Anthropology. 

Note. — Dr. Gillin's resignation from the "Cultural and Scientific Conference 
for World Peace" was announced in the prints as follows : 

[New York Times, Friday, March 25, 1949] 

Police Lift all Restrictions on Cultural Meeting Pickets 

Those withdrawing as sponsors were Franklin P. Adams, writer ; Lisa Sergio, 
lecturer and radio commentator ; and John Gillin, professor of anthropology at 
the University of North Carolina ; in addition to Rabbi Mordecai M. Kaplan, of 
the Jewish Theological Seminary, who announced his withdrawal on Wednesday.- 

[Newsweek Magazine, April 4, 1949] 

Peace: Evebtbodt Wars Over It 

The first result : Several non-Communists, who had agreed to sponsor the 
Conference for World Peace in belief that it would be what it proclaimed, awoke 
to a sudden realization of its true nature, and quit. Among them were Canada 
Lee, the Negro actor; Rabbi Mordecai M. Kaplan, of the Jewish Theological 
Seminary ; Lisa Sergio, the radio commentator ; Prof. John Gillin, of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina; and Franklin (Information, Please) P. Adams. 


[Durham (N. C.) Morning Herald, Sunday, March 27, 1949] 

This newspaper printed in full Dr. (lillin's lettei- of resignation addressed to 
Dr. Hurlow Shapley, dated March 2-, 1949, before the beginning of the conference. 

Review of the Scientific and Cultural Conference for World Peace 

A check of the records of the Committee on Un-American Activities discloses 
that a clerical error has been made in the record of Henry A. Murray, who is 
listed on page 18 as having been atflliated "with from 21 to 30 Communist-front 

His name should be withdrawn from this particular section of the report. 
He is, however, properly listed as a sponsor of the Scientific and Cultural 
Conference for World Peace.